Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies 2024-06-12T12:14:20+03:00 shatha fadhil [email protected] Open Journal Systems <p><strong>ISSN (print): 2220-5381</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN (online): 2710-1096</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies (JPRS) is a <strong>peer-reviewed open-access scientific</strong> <strong>journal, </strong>published by Ministry of Oil/ Petroleum Research and Development Center (PRDC)/ Baghdad/ Iraq, under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The first edition of the journal was published in August 2010, It aims at disseminating leading-edge knowledge and expertise in petroleum Indusrial topics to researchers, academic scientists, and postgraduate students. A double-blind peer-reviewing system is being used to assure the publication's quality.</span></p> <p>JPRS is published quarterly, artical of this journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution International Public License CC-BY 4.0 (, which licensees arexing unrestrictly allowed to search, download, share, distribute, print, or link to the full texts of the articles, crawl them for indexing and reproduce any medium of the articles provided that they give the author(s) proper credits (citation).</p> <p>JPRS issued under the supervision of a group of professors and oil experts, as well as two professors who affiliated to University PLYMOUTH, (UK) and another is Consultant and Adjunct Faculty at the Colorado School of Mines and the University of Houston , (USA)</p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal has excellent scientific level since first issued, evaluation techniques for researches and studies which followed aimed towards developed scientific and technical level. PRDC seeks to produce the journal in the best way because of the importance it represents in disseminating the scientific achievements in the oil sector as well as the research of students in the Ministry of higher Education and scientific research.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Concerned with publishing researches and studies related to the oil industry in the fields of:</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Petroleum Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Geological sciences</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemical Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Environment</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Oil Economy</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Renewable Energy. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal's website provides Open access and free in charge (download, publication) for authors, readers and institutions.</span></p> Iraq Crude Oil Exports- July, August, September, October, November, December/ 2022 2024-06-11T12:20:30+03:00 Oil Marketing Company, SOMO [email protected] <p>Table 1. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – July 2022 <br>Table 2. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – August 2022 <br>Table 3. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – September 2022 <br>Table 4. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – October 2022 <br>Table 5. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – November 2022 <br>Table 6. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – December 2022</p> 2024-06-12T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Effect of the Deep Marin Balambo Formation on the Qamchuqa Reservoirs in Jambur Field 2023-12-23T20:26:53+03:00 Ayub Mohammed Ahmed Shwani [email protected] Jayran K. Qadir [email protected] Shukur A. Rahman [email protected] Ali S. Alsaqi Alsaqi [email protected] Amel K. Nooralddin [email protected] <p>A shallow-marine carbonate known as Qamchuqa Formation was originally discovered in northern Iraq's Qamchuqa Gorge at an outcrop section. For the present study the available conventional well logs include gamma ray, porosity logs (density, and neutron) with the resistivity logs used to achieve the depositional environment of the studied area in selected wells Ja-21, Ja-32, Ja-41, Ja-46, and Ja-18. The Aptian-Albian age include lower and upper Qamchuqa formations, respectively are considered a major reservoir in Jambur Oil field; therefore, the present study focused only on lower and upper Qamchuqa formations. Deep marine environment Balambo Formation separated the Aptian-Albian reservoir into three parts each part is different in petrophysical properties and lithology composition. Zone -1 is shoal facies including lower and upper Qamchuqa formations composed of dolomite, dolomitic limestone and limestone, this part is far from interfingers with Balambo Formation. Zone -2 is mixed facies between shoal facies and basinal facies composed of limestone, marly limestone,shaly limestone and with a few streaks of dolomitic limestone. This part includes well Ja-32, Ja-41, and Ja-46. Zone -3 basinal facies include Balambo Formation composed of limestone, shaly and marly limestone involving well Ja-18 only. These differences above caused interfingering and lateral change in both reservoir units (lower and upper Qamchuqa formations) with Balambo Formation, and both are not depicting reservoir in Zone -2 and especially in Zone -3. The current study explains well Ja-18 located on the permanent basin and well Ja-32, Ja-41, and Ja-46 located between permanent basin and neritic zone (mixed zone or slope margin); therefore, the south east of Jambur Oil field abandoned to drill in it to Cretaceous age.</p> 2024-06-12T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies A Regional Static Model of the Dammam Aquifer as a Source of Injection Water, Southern Iraq 2024-02-12T11:21:39+03:00 Rafea A. Abdullah [email protected] Maher Ismael [email protected] Ahmed Sadoon [email protected] Masara Ahmed [email protected] Reyam Alameri [email protected] Maysaa A. Abdulhameed [email protected] <p>The Middle Eocene, shallow, dolomitic, high salinity aquifer has significant importance as the main source of injection water at the present time in order to maintain reservoir pressure above the bubble point in maturing oil fields in southern Iraq until other sources of injection water become available. Therefore, in this study, the Dammam aquifer was studied in detail by integrating all available data, including 3D seismic, well information, well logs, and core data.</p> <p>A regional aquifer static model has been constructed to better understand subsurface geology and in order to be ready to be used in the construction of a sophisticated dynamic model to predict whether the Dammam aquifer can supply enough water for injection or not. More than 184 wells have been used in the present study. The structural framework was built according to 3D seismic cube and well tops. The average thickness is about 235 mm. In order to understand the lateral and vertical connectivity, a facies model was created in addition to the porosity and permeability models with input from the core and a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) log.</p> <p>According to the facies change, the Dammam aquifer has been divided from bottom to top into five units (MD50, MD100, MD200, MD300, and MD400). The top of the Dammam formation varies from 700m in the southeast to 1000m in the north-west. The porosity in the Dammam formation is very high and varies from 12 to 45 PU, with an average porosity of 29 PU. In order to reduce uncertainty, the study recommends that a new rock core have to be cut, in addition to a number of NMR and Formation Micro Imager (FMI) logs needing to be run into selected wells</p> 2024-06-12T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Casing Collapse and Salt Creeping for an Iraqi Oil Field: Implications for Mitigation 2023-12-25T19:34:12+03:00 Ali N. Abed Al-Hasnawi [email protected] Armin Hosseinian [email protected] Ali K. Faraj [email protected] Ameen K. Salih [email protected] <p>Casing collapse is considered one of the costliest problems that occurs in the oil industry, and it happens when the stresses or loads exceed the casing collapse resistance or due to casing wear and corrosion or salt creeping. For X oil field, located in Iraq's southern east, a casing collapse phenomenon has been exposed in four wells, including well X-1, and the salt creeping may be the main reason because the collapsed casing section is encountered by a salt formation that may be creeping under compression. In this paper, Lower-Fars’s formation had been specified as the high-pressure salt formation that causes this problem according to the analysis of the provided data that included the depths of the collapse, log data and the final geological report. A new suggested casing design had been suggested by using pore pressure, fracture pressure, and horizontal stresses that were estimated by interactive petrophysics software from the well log data. The proposed and current casing designs were Simulated using Landmark-stress check software, and the proposed casing design indicates changing the grade from (L-80, 47 ppf) to (N-80, 53 ppf), which prevents the problem from recurring when drilling new wells in the same field as well as the proposed casing design can be economically considered feasible.</p> 2024-06-12T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Treatment of the Bitumen and Heavy Oil in Zubair Formation/ East Baghdad Field 2023-12-17T13:46:16+03:00 Dr. Ahmed K. Alhusseini [email protected] Harith A. Mohammed [email protected] Sarah H. Hamzah [email protected] <p>Bitumen precipitation refers to the separation and settling of heavier, denser hydrocarbon compounds from crude oil, which can occur under certain conditions of pressure and temperature. Crude oils with high viscosity, high density, low API gravity, and high sulfur content are more prone to bitumen precipitation. Understanding these properties is essential in the oil industry for predicting the behavior of crude oils during production, transportation, refining, and storage. The viscosity, density, API, and sulfur content of crude oil were examined as part of this investigation. The viscosity test is achieved by using automated viscometer apparatus with ASTM D 7042 standard, while the sulfur content test is performed by using Sindie 2622 Sulfur Analyzer with ASTM D 7039 standard. However, density and API gravity tests are done depending on manually condition related to mixing, time, method, temperature and percentages until obtained an optimized result. In order to determine the reduction in viscosity and other physical properties of crude oil, which will offer a better solution against the precipitating of asphaltene and Bitumen that essentially lead to plug the production pipe and stop oil production. The chosen solvent was kerosene, which mixed with three samples of crude oil over the course of three periods under standard conditions from the Zubair formation/East Baghdad field [EB-58]. However, the kerosene is selected because it has a high specific gravity which is considered as the best solvent for heavy crude oil and it is inexpensive. Moreover, in experimental work used three percentage of kerosene to mix with crude oil; [6%, 12% and 18%]. The results show that all ratio of kerosene addition will optimize the crude oil properties. The best result was gotten by adding 18 % kerosene to crude oil and the best optimization results were viscosity 89.3%, density 4.27%, API 39.5% and sulfur content 21.2%. In addition to reduce the viscosity of the heavy crude oil, using kerosene for 1 job will minimize the expenses approximately 1,177,000 IQD.</p> 2024-06-12T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Energy Saving Via Accurate Computation of Crude Flow Measurement and Calculations 2023-12-17T20:00:40+03:00 Hisham I. Siddiq [email protected] <p>Oil industry involves transporting crude oil using pipelines for long distances. One of the major losses factors in this industry is the inaccurate flow calculations. The flow is calculated by pressure differential measurement between two adjacent pumping stations. In addition, there are flow counters at the discharge end of the pipeline. A multi-pumping station oil pipeline, the subject of this case study these two methods seem not to give the same result any more. That’s because of the lack of effective flow factors updating, and the very slow or even no response to sudden unexpected changes in pressure differential in pipeline sections.</p> <p>This paper shows the tremendous effect of these factors and its impact to continuous pumping with proposed empirical formula for updating, for minimal calculation errors and hence related losses.</p> <p> </p> 2024-06-12T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Converting of Waste Crude Oil of East Baghdad Oil Field into Light Hydrocarbons Using Thermal Cracking Technology 2023-12-21T21:19:34+03:00 Sally I. Hammoodi [email protected] Khalid A. Sukkar [email protected] Abdulridha H. Almajidi [email protected] Riyadh Almukhtar [email protected] <p>East Baghdad oil field produces a lot of quantities of waste crude oil due to drilling and production processes activities. This waste is caused a negative impact on the environment and human health. In the present investigation, the collected waste crude oil of API= 13 was converted into light hydrocarbons via a thermal cracking reaction. The thermal cracking process was achieved in a batch reactor at temperatures ranging between 350-450°C in absence of oxygen. At each temperature, the reaction pressures varied between (1-6) kg/cm<sup>2</sup>. Moreover, a continuous stirring of the reaction mixture inside the reactor was continued during the course of the thermal cracking process at a velocity of 96 rpm. The best yield of produced liquid hydrocarbon, gases, and coke at optimum conditions was 77.56 wt.%, 9.3 wt.%, and 13.14 wt.%, respectively. Actually, this process regards cheap, and simple with a high rate of liquid hydrocarbon production as well as environmentally beneficial.</p> 2024-06-12T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Localized Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel as a Function of Surface Temperature and Water Condensation Rate at the Top of Oil and Gas Pipelines 2023-12-24T20:10:55+03:00 Hazim S. Hamad [email protected] Khalid A. Mohammed [email protected] <p>Pitting corrosion in carbon steel can be complex and largely unpredictable, making it challenging to inhibit the propagation of pits once they have formed. The CO2 corrosion mechanism is subject to various influencing factors, including temperature, pH solution, and the duration of exposure to corrosive media. Additionally, the characteristics and structure of the protective films formed play a role in determining the likelihood of pit initiation and propagation on carbon steel surfaces.</p> <p>This research explores the correlation between the pitting corrosion characteristics of carbon steel and varying surface temperatures and water condensation rates in CO2-saturated environments, specifically in the top-of-line scenario. The effect of the water condensation rate (WCR) on the TLC rate was investigated at surface temperatures of 15°C, and 40°C.</p> <p>At a relatively low surface temperature of 15°C, Fig.<strong> (6</strong>results demonstrate that increasing the WCR above 0.712 ml/m<sup>2</sup>·s.</p> <p>Pitting corrosion was studied under different conditions using the surface profilometry technique. Understanding the kinetics of FeCO<sub>3</sub> film formation, including its presence and absence, is essential in assessing the potential for localized corrosion.</p> <p>During a 7-day exposure period, under specific conditions of water condensation rate and steel temperature, a partially protective corrosion film developed. Nevertheless, localized corrosion was distinctly evident on the steel surface. Over time, pits appeared to be deepening, particularly at higher steel temperatures and the maximum depth was at .</p> 2024-06-12T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Desulfurization of Basra Diesel Fuel by Emulsification – Adsorption Processes 2024-01-05T13:36:15+03:00 Ali G. Khudhur [email protected] Ahmed A. Hantosh [email protected] Mohammed A. Omer [email protected] <p>In this study, the combined emulsification–adsorption processes were employed for the desulfurization of Basra diesel fuel. A high sulfur diesel fuel of 1.4538 wt% from the Basra refinery was oxidized effectively with H2O2 and Acetic acid (AcOH) as a catalyst to reduce sulfur content to 1.0875 wt% before being emulsified. The emulsification desulfurization (EDS) process using Alkyl benzene sulfonate (ABS) as a surfactant was optimized by 20 trails according to Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A 0.83886 wt% was achieved at the following optimum conditions: Surfactant concentration 20 wt.%, temperature 57.56 ᵒC, and homogenization speed 5695 rpm. The adsorptive desulfurization (ADS) process using activated bentonite clay was carried out in a batch system. The RSM was applied to determine the effect of contact time (1-10 hr), clay mass (5- 20 gm/50ml), and temperature (30-100 ᵒC) on the sulfur removal. Results showed that the sulfur content of 0.57 wt% was achieved at the following conditions: adsorption time 7.18 hrs., temperature 53.3 ᵒC, and clay mass 15.24 gm/ 50ml. The achieved sulfur removal efficiency was 23% and 32% for EDS and ADS respectively. The diesel fuel quality was studied by GC and IREX.</p> 2024-06-12T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Biosynthesis of Fe/Pd Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Used for Removal of Synthetic Oily Wastewater 2023-12-24T23:22:40+03:00 Ahmed Khudhair Hassan [email protected] Luay Q. Hashim [email protected] Ahmed M. Rezooqi [email protected] Mohammed F. Hashim [email protected] <p>Eucalyptus plant leaves aqueous extract was used to produce a green bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (G-Fe/Pd NPs) catalyst for the degradation of synthetic oily effluent. Using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size, and a zeta potential analyzer, the synthesized G Fe/Pd NPs were evaluated. G-Fe/Pd NPs have been found to contain nanoparticles, with a mean size of 182 nm and a surface area of 5.106 m<sup>2</sup>/g. The resulting nanoparticles were then used as a catalyst for a Fenton-like reaction. The amount of green catalyst G-Fe/Pd NPs (0.125-0.5 g/L), H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> concentration (15-37.5 mmol/L), pH (3-7), and temperature (25-45°C) all have a significant impact on the degradation efficiency of synthetic oily wastewater. Batch experiments showed that 88.9% degraded chemical oxygen demand (COD) from synthetic oily wastewater within the optimum conditions of peroxide concentration, catalyst dose, pH, and temperature which were 30.0 mmol/L, 0.375 g/L, 3, and 45℃ respectively along with 60 min contact time. The results of kinetic models showed that oily wastewater removal followed the Behnajady-Modirshahla-Ghanbary (BMG) model. Finally, the thermodynamic study of the reaction was also examined and concluded to endothermic reaction with an enthalpy of 37.39 kJ/mol.</p> 2024-06-12T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies A study of Using a Phyto-nanosynthesis of Silver and Portulaca Oleracea Plant Extracts in Petroleum Spots Treatment 2023-12-21T22:00:02+03:00 Muthik Abd Guda [email protected] Anam A. Tsear [email protected] Laith Saheb [email protected] <p>Petroleum spots has become a major global problem not only in terms of its increase, but also how it is treated, recycled or utilized. It contains suspended and dissolved solids, hydrocarbons and many types of organic matter and heavy metals. The reuse of petroleum spots faces the problem of removing organic pollutant compounds before discharging them into any natural stream. in this study, natural nano –coagulant material was used and their efficiency in removing turbidity, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from petroleum spots were compared. The study was conducted in the laboratories of the Ecology Sciences Department, University of Kufa, Iraq in 2022. By synthesizing Phyto-nanosilver as a Phyto-nano silver from Leaves of Portulaca oleracea plant extracts used to reduce turbidity and organic pollutants of the petroleum spots. Jar test experiments showed that 0.5 mg / L Phyto-nanosilver dose can remove 95.5 % of (COD), 87.3% of TOC and 85.2 % from turbidity. Also, removal of P. oleracea plant extracts in the 1 and 0.5 mg/L dose can removed turbidity, COD and TOC content of 91.9%, 87.5 % and 82.4% respectively of the petroleum spots. Moreover, when using the nano-sliver only, removal of TOC, COD, and turbidity would reach 75.3%, 80.4%, and 81.3 %, respectively. The results of the research showed the efficiency of Phyto-nano silver materials in treating and depositing pollutants without harming the environment.</p> 2024-06-12T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies