Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies JPRS is quarterly scientific, issued by Ministry of Oil / Petroleum Research and Development Center (PRDC)/ Baghdad/ Iraq, which holds the international numbering (Print ISSN-2220-5381), (Online ISSN : 2710-1096) and has certificate (accreditation) from the Ministry of Higher Education and scientific research under the supervision of a group of professors and oil experts, as well as two professors who affiliated to University PLYMOUTH, (UK) and another is Consultant and Adjunct Faculty at the Colorado School of Mines and the University of Houston , (USA), the first issued was in 2010 \August.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal has excellent scientific level since first issued, evaluation techniques for researches and studies which followed aimed towards developed scientific and technical level. PRDC seeks to produce the journal in the best way because of the importance it represents in disseminating the scientific achievements in the oil sector as well as the research of students in the Ministry of higher Education and scientific research.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Concerned with publishing researches and studies related to the oil industry in the fields of:</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Petroleum Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Geology</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemistry</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemical Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Environment</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Oil Economy</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Renewable Energy. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal's website provides Open access and free in charge (download, publication) for authors, readers and institutions.</span></p> Iraqi Ministry of Oil / Petroleum Research and Development Center en-US Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies 2220-5381 Structure Analysis of Sa’adi Reservoir in X Supergiant Oilfield, Southern Iraq https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/520 <p>The study area is located in southern Iraq in Mesopotamia hydrocarbon province. It’s part of supergiant liner anticline that extends from south to north, South Rumaila, North Rumaila, West Qurna-1, and West Qurna-2. The major fold oriented north-northwest and extends approximately 120Km. All available data was integrated and used in this study to support a better image of the subsurface of the Sa'adi structure. The Sa'adi reservoir in the study area is considered as a secondary reservoir. Therefore, a three-dimensional seismic survey, and seven VSPs, in addition, to well tops that drive from a set of well logs are used in this study.</p> <p>The three-dimensional seismic interpretation and subsurface structure maps of both Tops of Sa'adi and Tanuma formations were performed by Halliburton software (OpenWorks, DecisionSpace Geoscience, and Seismic Analysis). The structure maps of Lower Sa'adi_I and Lower Sa'adi_II have been created based on well tops. A set of well logs (Quad combo) were used to identify the well tops in more than four hundred wells that penetrated the Sa'adi reservoir and distributed over the study area using Geolog software. The structure maps of Lower Sa'adi_I and Lower Sa'adi_II in addition to the cross-sections were set up by Petrel 2018 (Schlumberger software). The study gives highly accurate structure maps of top of Upper Sa'adi, top of Lower Sa'adi_I, top of Lower Sa'adi_II, and top of Tanuma formations. The Sa'adi structure in study area is classified as asymmetrical, non-cylindrical, horizontal, antiform, brachy, gentle anticline.</p> Rafea Alabdulaziz Muwafaq F. Al-Shahwan Maysaa A. Abdulhameed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 12 4 1 15 10.52716/jprs.v12i4.520 Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Investigation the Effect of the Hole Cleaning Parameters in Inclined and Horizontal Wells https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/569 <p>The increasing global demand has prompted the development of more innovative ways to enhance the drilling of oil wells at lower costs, and avoid operational problems that affect the speed of drilling oil wells. The numerical cuttings trajectories simulation has been done to include the effect of cuttings collisions using commercial ANSYS FLUENT 2019 R3 CFD software. The (Eulerian-Eulerian) model was used to verify the cuts transport behavior due to the existence of liquid and solid phases. In this simulation, the mind transport rate is checked by changing the operational parameters which including (drilling mud flow rate and temperature, cuttings size, inclination, drill pipe rotation and eccentricity). The results show that the high degree of agreement was observed between the numerical results with experimental studied by the researcher Yaacob, indicating the CFD analysis system's dependability and capacity to mimic the drilling operation. The use of (Eulerian-Eulerian) model is found reliable in interpreting the phenomena of multiphase flow for understanding the mechanism of influence of parameters associated with the process of drilling oil wells on the lifting capacity. Increasing the flow velocity of the drilling mud transforms the flow pattern from laminar to turbulent, and the latter is one of the desired flow patterns during the flow that enable to increase the lifting capacity of the cuttings. The effect of the rotation speed of the drill pipe on the concentration of cuttings decreases when the flow rate of drilling fluid increases. the cuttings concentration when the flow velocity is 0.6 m/s reaches 48 % when the cuttings size is (0.5-1) mm and it attained to (60,57.52) % when the cuttings size is ((3.5-4) ,(2.25-3),(1.5-2)) mm respectively for the same flow velocity. The increase in the temperature of the drilling fluid weakened the ability of the drilling fluid to move the cuttings. At the flow velocity is 1.2 m/s and the drilling angle is 0˚ (vertical well), the cuttings concentration attained to 30 % within the annular space, while the concentration becomes (41, 44, 54, 32) % at the drilling angle (30˚, 45˚, 60˚, 90˚) respectively at the same stated flow velocity.</p> Ali S. Golam Mohammed H. Alhamdo Hassan A. Abdul Hussein Sinan I. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 12 4 16 37 10.52716/jprs.v12i4.569 Aging Effect on Rock Wettability Alteration https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/579 <p>One of the factors controlling fluid distribution in porous media is wettability, which is ranging from water-wet to oil wet. Wettability could be changed due to the long-time contact with hydrocarbon liquids. Wettability alteration resulting from the aging of core samples in hydrocarbon liquids becomes a widely used technique. The aging of Core samples from different locations in different types of liquids had been studied. The aging periods used in these studies range from hours to 110 days. In this work, synthetic core samples were aged for a period ranging from 205 to 824 days into two different hydrocarbon liquids (heavy crude from the East Baghdad oil field and gas oil). Results show that long time aging periods dramatically alter wettability; also, heavy crude oil alters wettability higher than that of light hydrocarbon.</p> Ahmed J. Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 12 4 38 49 10.52716/jprs.v12i4.579 Selection of an Optimum Drilling Fluid Model to Enhance Mud Hydraulic System Using Neural Networks in Iraqi Oil Field https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/585 <p>In drilling processes, the rheological properties pointed to the nature of the run-off and the composition of the drilling mud. Drilling mud performance can be assessed for solving the problems of the hole cleaning, fluid management, and hydraulics controls. The rheology factors are typically termed through the following parameters: Yield Point (Yp) and Plastic Viscosity (μp). The relation of (YP/ μp) is used for measuring of levelling for flow. High YP/ μp percentages are responsible for well cuttings transportation through laminar flow. The adequate values of (YP/ μp) are between 0 to 1 for the rheological models which used in drilling. This is what appeared in most of the models that were used in this study. The pressure loss is a gathering of numerous issues for example rheology of mud), flow regime and the well geometry. An artificial neural network (ANN) that used in this effort is an accurate or computational model stimulated by using JMP software. The aim of this study is to find out the effect of rheological models on the hydraulic system and to use the artificial neural network to simulate the parameters that were used as emotional parameters and then find an equation containing the parameters μp, Yp and P Yp/ μp to calculate the pressure losses in a hydraulic system. Data for 7 intermediate casing wells with 12.25" hole size and 9<strong><sup>5/8</sup></strong>" intermediate casing size are taken from the southern Iraq field used for the above purpose. Then compare the result with common equations used to calculate pressure losses in a hydraulic system. Also, we calculate the optimum flow by the maximum impact force method and then offset in Equation obtained by (Joint Marketing Program) JMP software. Finally, the equation that was found to calculate pressure losses instead of using common hydraulic equations with long calculations gave very close results with less calculation.</p> <p> </p> Amel H. Assi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 12 4 50 67 10.52716/jprs.v12i4.585 The Effecting of Various Parameters on the Thermophysical and Rheological Properties of SiO2 Nano-lubricating Oil in Petroleum Refineries https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/575 <p>The improvement of the performance of automotive engines necessitated the use of effective lubricating oil. Experimentally explored are the thermophysical characteristics and rheological behavior of Nano-lubricating oil made by mixing SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles with stock-60. Nano-lubricant has been prepared with a two-step method using a magnetic stirrer as a first step mixing and an ultrasonic homogenizer. The rheological properties were investigated at various shear rates, temperature, and solid volume percent. This research was carried out on concentrations ranging from 0.1 % to 1.0 %. The results showed elevation in temperature, the dynamic viscosity dropped in all shear rates due to lower SiO<sub>2</sub> NP concentrations and that all samples exhibited Newtonian behavior at all temperatures fixed. The thermal conductivity of nano-lubricating oil was tested at various temperatures ranging from 20°C to 50°C. The different solid volume percent of SiO<sub>2</sub> NPs were in the range of 0 to 1% maximum enhancement value was achieved at higher temperature with increased volume percent of SiO<sub>2</sub> NPs. Other important thermophysical properties of lube oil including flashpoint and pour point were also measured. The results revealed that adding SiO<sub>2</sub> NPs to stock-60 at a solid volume percent of 1% will result in a maximum improvement of 12 % in flashpoint over the base oil, while the improvement of pour point was achieved at nano-addition of 0.75% and 1% compared with the base oil was increased from -3°C to -6°C.</p> Alyaa M. Awad khalid A. Sukkar Dalya M. Jaed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 12 4 68 91 10.52716/jprs.v12i4.575 Effect of Cationic Surfactant in the Synthesis Process of Nano γ-Alumina for Petroleum Industry Application https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/578 <p> Nanotechnology is widely used in industries, including catalyst synthesis for oil and gas industries to enhance and perform new Characteristics of materials. Cetyl tri methyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) cationic surfactant was used in the synthesis of spherical nanostructured γ-alumina to enhance the morphology of the prepared nano gamma alumina which is used as a catalyst support in the naphtha reforming process. The preparation was carried out by co-precipitation method by adding drop wise of ammonium hydroxide solution and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate solution simultaneously to a solution of surfactant medium, PH and temperature of reaction were kept at 8 and 30 cᵒ respectively. The gamma alumina obtained were characterized by X- Ray Diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis (ASAP 2020, Micromeretics) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The sample of synthesized gamma alumina with the CTAB cationic surfactant showed that surface are (314 m2/g), pore volume (0.37 cm3/g), and pore size (3.6 nm).</p> mustafa H. Flayyih Mohammed S. Theib Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 12 4 92 103 10.52716/jprs.v12i4.578 Preparation and Characterization of High Surface Area Nanosilica from Iraqi Sand via Sol-Gel Technique https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/645 <p>The present study revealed a low-cost process for utilizing desert sand for preparing nanosilica by sol-gel technique. This work required sodium hydroxide, concentrated hydrochloric acid, distillate water as raw materials, and Iraqi sand. Nanosilica sample was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM), atomic force microscope(AFM), surface area (BET) method, and fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The XRD result of produced sample is referred to as amorphous silica, and it has a broad peak at 2Θ= 22° – 22.5 º. SEM showed spherical, agglomerated silica particles with a diameter range of 26.57–28.93 nm. In addition, the average particle size was 76.35nm, with a dimension range of 40-110 nm, and the surface area was 510.96 m²/g. The inclusion of hydrogen-bonded silanol groups (Si–O–H) at 3437.15 cm-¹ and siloxane groups (Si–O–Si) at 1087.85 cm-¹in the FTIR spectra.</p> Firdews Sh. Mahmood Hussein Q. Hussein Zeinab T. Abdulwahhab Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 12 4 104 117 10.52716/jprs.v12i4.645 Furfural Removal from Refinery Wastewater by Adsorption on Commercial Activated Carbon https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/726 <p>Furfural is a toxic aromatic aldehyde that can cause severe environmental problems, especially the wastewater discharge from petroleum refinery units. The effect of adsorption variables, which include time (30-240) min, initial concentration of furfural (40-5080) mg/l, and amount of adsorbent material (10, 15, and 20 g\250 ml). The commercial activated carbon was investigated in a batch process in order to obtain the maximum furfural removal from wastewater. The results obtained from the experimental investigations showed that furfural removal increases with the increasing adsorbent material and decreases with increasing furfural concentration. Best Furfural removal efficiency was obtained at pH value equal 7.0, agitation speed 150 rpm, contact time 240 minutes. Chemical adsorption takes place when increasing temperature adsorption capacity increases. The best solvent used to regenerate activated carbon was ethanol 50 wt%. Ethanol has been used in industrial applications due to its low cost and relatively eco-friendly solvent.&nbsp; The laboratory experiments were done, and the sump drum O3D4, D-303 site was chosen to execute the project. The maximum contamination in the furfural was 100 ppm. The dimension of the polluted area in the sump drum (O3D4, D-303) was 20.3, 45 m2. The amount of activated carbon used 327, 726.3 kg.</p> Rouaa N. Ghazy Ibtehal K. Shakir Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 12 4 118 136 10.52716/jprs.v12i4.726 The Economic Feasibility of using Renewable Energy in Iraqi Oil Fields https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/727 <p>This study included over all about competition of renewable energy to the conventional energy, and the economic growth on the demand for renewable energy technology especially solar energy, and the increasing on its annual cost decline. Also, highlight on the most important projects applied in the oil fields in the Middle East and America.</p> <p>In this study, a design and economic simulation of the solar energy system was conducted as a source for generating electricity with a capacity of 1 megawatt and a comparison of the capital and operation cost between the solar energy system, diesel generators, government and private sectors stations at the same operating time and the same energy. The economic simulation has shown that there is a big difference between the capital costs, as the cost of the solar energy system is about (40-37%) higher than the cost of diesel generators and investment stations, respectively, for a maximum operating capacity of 1 megawatt/hour, but on the other hand, it is characterized by The solar energy system has a depreciation factor of 0.75% compared to its counterparts, which reaches 10%, and the standard of its energy cost is low, reaching 0.22 $/ kilowatt compared to other sources of energy. In addition, Payback period of the solar energy system was 9 years by saving fuel cost and its low operating cost that reach to 0.0183 $/kWh, compared to its counterparts from government sector station, diesel generators, power stations. (Fuel from the investor), and private sector stations (fuel from the investor), whose operating costs are (0.1, 0.076, 0.038, 0.1) $/kWh, respectively. The results showed that the solar system economically feasible, with lifetime 25 years, while the generator lifetime ten years only. The solar radiation system limits carbon emissions, as the amount of carbon emissions per kilowatt of energy using conventional fuels is (185-265) grams of CO<sub>2</sub> per kilowatt.</p> Rana R. Jalil Hashim J. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 12 4 137 156 10.52716/jprs.v12i4.727 The Role of Strategic Planning in promoting six-sigma Technology A Reconnaissance Study in North Oil Company https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/524 <p>This research aims to identify the role of strategic planning in strengthening the foundations of hexagonal diffraction technology in the North Oil Company / public company - Kirkuk as a field for research, and the role that strategic planning plays in supporting organizations by adopting the method of hexagonal diffraction technology to form a roadmap for the organization as well as Making decisions characterized by studying the future and keeping pace with it, and from this point of view, the exploratory framework for this research is centered on diagnosing the pillars of strategic planning and employing them in the company in the course of the research through optimal use and reliance on hexagonal diffraction technology and employing its dimensions to reach a solution to the research problem</p> <p>The researcher adopted a plan by defining the research objectives and hypotheses and using statistical analysis and the descriptive method through the inductive approach from the specific to the general to achieve the results. (90) questionnaires were distributed to a sample of working individuals at several levels in the Ministry of Oil / North Oil Company, and (73) questionnaires were returned, subjected to analysis.</p> <p> The research reached the most important conclusions and suggestions:</p> <ol> <li>Strategic planning helps the managers of organizations to understand what is going on around them in the surrounding environment as a result of analyzing the internal and external environments so that they can deal with the future in a beneficial manner</li> </ol> <p>and make them more able to make correct decisions that lead to success and excellence.</p> <ol start="2"> <li>Both strategic planning and hexagonal diffraction technology in the investigated field have a positive, moral relationship with statistical significance at the macro and micro levels.</li> </ol> Ali S. Gazal Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 12 4 1 26 10.52716/jprs.v12i4.524 Iraq Crude Oil Exports – July, August, September/ 2020 https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/728 <p>Table 1. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – July 2020</p> <p>Table 2. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – August 2020</p> <p>Table 3. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – September 2020</p> Ministry of Oil / Oil Marketing Company SOMO Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2022-12-15 2022-12-15 12 4 1 4 10.52716/jprs.v12i4.728