Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies JPRS is quarterly scientific, issued by Ministry of Oil / Petroleum Research and Development Center (PRDC)/ Baghdad/ Iraq, which holds the international numbering (Print ISSN-2220-5381), (Online ISSN : 2710-1096) and has certificate (accreditation) from the Ministry of Higher Education and scientific research under the supervision of a group of professors and oil experts, as well as two professors who affiliated to University PLYMOUTH, (UK) and another from University of Colorado School of Mines, (USA), the first issued was in 2010 \August.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal has excellent scientific level since first issued, evaluation techniques for researches and studies which followed aimed towards developed scientific and technical level. PRDC seeks to produce the journal in the best way because of the importance it represents in disseminating the scientific achievements in the oil sector as well as the research of students in the Ministry of higher Education and scientific research.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Concerned with publishing researches and studies related to the oil industry in the fields of:</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Petroleum Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Geology</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemistry</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemical Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Environment</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Oil Economy</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Renewable Energy. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal's website provides Open access and free in charge (download, publication) for authors, readers and institutions.</span></p> Petroleum Research and Development Center en-US Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies 2220-5381 Iraq Crude Oil Exports – October, November, December/ 2019 https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/568 <p>Table 1. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – October 2019</p> <p>Table 2. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – November 2019</p> <p>Table 3. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – December 2019</p> Ministry of Oil / Oil Marketing Company SOMO Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 11 4 1 4 10.52716/jprs.v11i4.568 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Quarterly Boiling Range Distribution of Iraqi Crude Oil by Simulated Distillation Method https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/560 <p>This study includes analysis of different crude oil stock for various field Iraqi oil by gas chromatography instrument, using simulated distillation technique for determining the&nbsp; initial and final&nbsp; boiling point distribution and specified compound distillation information (normal paraffins) (Recovery W/W) for (nC<sub>5</sub> – nC<sub>44</sub>), ASTM-D5307 becomes the analytical method. This method need tow samples; the first one spiked with internal standard and the second without internal standard. This analysis for quantitative and qualitative oil characterization which is often useful for evaluating the range of hydrocarbons in crude oil using Simulated Distillation. The study was performed using:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Quarterly analysis of SIMDIS GC Distillation for three field (East Baghdad, Badra, Amara)</li> <li class="show">Comparison of analyzes of SIMDIS GC Distillation with Different API (light, intermediate, heavy) with Initial boiling point (IBP).</li> <li class="show">Finding experimental relationship between API and Initial boiling point (IBP):</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The result of this study shows that the boiling point increase as the number of carbon is increase, the values of n-Pentane (nC5) to n- Tetratetracontane (nC44) (w/w) changes from winter and summer (difference in temperatures), Positive correlation between C6 and C5 with API, where their percentages increase with increasing API for crude oil and C6 and C5 are lower in summer than in winter due to the evaporation of light components of the samples in summer. Initial boiling point increase as the API is decrease that mean in crude oil have heavy component increases and light component decrease (inverse relationship).</p> Aliaa K. Alhead Shatha F. Khaleel Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 11 4 1 16 10.52716/jprs.v11i4.560 Synthesis of Hematite Nano Material and Its Effect on Properties of Water Based Drilling Mud https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/559 <p>The worldwide use of nanotechnology in most industries, such as in oil and gas industries, the world now has been directed towards introducing this modern technology in drilling fluids for the purpose of reaching and extracting hydrocarbons that exist at high depth where high temperatures and high pressure present using this technology to achieve the required mud properties with lowest cost.</p> <p>In this research, the particles of Nano hematite were prepared in laboratory using two methods, the first method by chemical reaction between iron nitrate (Fe (NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>• 9H<sub>2</sub>O) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), after that, prepared Nano-materials were subjected to AFM, XRD testing in order to investigate the size and type of particles, the investigations showed that the formed particles were Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (&lt;100nm). The second method is similar to the first method except adding (CTAB) material in order to reduce the interfacial tension leading to 4.5nm Nano-material. Three samples of drilling mud were prepared, the first sample was prepared from water and bentonite only, the second sample was prepared from water, bentonite and nano (prepared from first method), the third samples was prepared from water, bentonite and nano (prepared from second method), rheological properties, filtration, density, lubricity, sagging and magnetism properties were measured by analyzing and comparing the results. The results were obtained showed that the small effect of nano material filtration, density, lubricity, and sagging properties, except the viscosity increase when the second sample of Nano hematite was added to the mud prepared from water and bentonite. Also, the magnetism increase when the second sample of nano hematite was added to the mud prepared from water and bentonite, due to the difference in the molecular arrangement caused by the presence of CTAB.</p> Narjis Mohmmad Ahmed Dr. Hassan Abdul Hadi Abdul Hussein Mustafa H. Flayyih Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 11 4 17 35 10.52716/jprs.v11i4.559 The Seismic Interpretation for (X) Oil Field Depending on 3D Seismic Data of Nearby Oil Field, Southern Iraq https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/562 <p>This research focused on using seismic data to review the structure of the (X) Oil Field, located 40 km SW of Basrah, Southern Iraq. The study utilises a 3D seismic survey conducted during 2011-2012, covering the (Y) Oil Field 2 km to the west, and with partial coverage across (X), to map the Top Zubair reflector. Seismic rock properties analysis was conducted on key (X) Oil Field wells and used to tie the Top Zubair reflector on (X) Oil Field. The reflector was mapped within the time domain using DecisionSpace Software, and then converted to depth using a velocity model. The depth structure map was then compared to the original oil water contact (OOWC) across the fields to understand the potential structural closure of the Top Zubair reservoir in both fields.</p> Wessam Abdul Abbas Alhammod Ban Talib Aljizani Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 11 4 36 50 10.52716/jprs.v11i4.562 Synthesis and Characterization of High Surface Area Nano Titanium Dioxide https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/563 <p>TiO2 and TiO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel method using hydrolysis of Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) with ethanol and water mixture as titania source. TiO2-Al2O3 Nano-composite was successfully synthesized using the sol-gel technique. Tetraisopropoxide and aluminium isopropoxide were used to prepare TiO2-Al2O3. All prepared samples calcination were conducted at different temperature (400 to 700) <sup>o</sup>C. The synthesized TiO2 and TiO2-Al2O3 nanocomposites were then characterized by XRD, AFM, BET surface area, SEM, XRF. XRD, the analysis showed that the presence of alumina (Al2O3) in the TiO2 has an effect on crystal size, particles size, surface area, and crystal phases; The XRD result revealed that the prepared TiO2 nanoparticles were anatase phase at 400oC, and 500oC, and transformed to rutile from 600oC to 700oC, but after addition of alumina TiO2 was of anatase phase, without any rutile at all calcination temperatures, also, the addition of alumina leads to a significant decrease in the crystal size, particles size, especially at high temperatures while the surface area of pure titanium was increased, and this corresponds to the results of the AFM and SEM. The best-obtained surface area was 355.18 m2/ gm. with 34.98 nm of average particle size at 500oC in comparison with pure nano titanium dioxide</p> Dalya Jasim Ahmed Ahmed Basim Ibrahim Al-abdaly Sattar Jalil Hussein Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 11 4 51 75 10.52716/jprs.v11i4.563 Improving the Performance of Split Air Conditioner by Adding Nano Silver to the Compressor Oil https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/564 <p>A high &nbsp;demand on the energy and power has brought scholars more attention to investigate &nbsp;new ways to reduce the energy consumption. The aim of this research is reducing the power consumption required for air conditioning to cool the room by adding nanomaterials to the compressor oil at a mass concentration of 0.15%. Two models of chambers with dimensions (2 x 2 x 2) meters were fabricated to represent the test section and connected to a 1ton compressor, one operating with natural oil as a standard basis for comparison, while the other one with Nano-oil prepared in the laboratory. The mass concentrations of 0.15% of silver nanoparticles (Ag) were prepared, and the stability of the nanoparticles was tested by direct observation for different time periods. The results indicated that the performance of the air conditioner was better with the addition of nanoparticles to the compressor oil compared to the pure oil in the compressor. Reducing energy consumption in the cooling system by (19%). Also, it was found that there is an increase in the cooling speed of the nanotechnology system by (6%)as well as &nbsp;in the efficiency of the Nano-oil system compared to the regular system by (13%). This study showed that the thermophysical properties of the cooling oil increased by increasing the weight ratios of solid nanoparticles by (12%).</p> Abdulqadir Hameed Rasheed Adnan M. Hussein Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 11 4 76 90 10.52716/jprs.v11i4.564 Continuous Separation Process of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion by Simultaneous Application of an Electrical Field Combined with a Novel Absorbent Based on Functionalised PolyHIPE Polymer https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/565 <p>During the extraction process of crude oil, the removal of water from a high stability water-in-crude oil emulsions is life-threatening for the production of a profitable product. However, several technologies of separation exist today, e.g. stripping columns, centrifugal separators, coalescence separators, vacuum distillation systems and gravity separators, almost all of these approaches are not able to completely remove water from water-in-crude oil emulsions besides their high cost.</p> <p>In this study, the preparation of a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) was achieved on a laboratory scale. Subsequently, it was polymerized and sulphonated to produce a hydrophilic macroporous polyHIPE polymer (PHP) called silane (vinyl trimethoxy silane) PHP with a relatively high surface area of 104 m 2/g. It demonstrates high water absorption capability in addition to its ability to remove surface active substances such as Mg, Ca, Na and Cl, from crude oil which cause crude oil emulsification.</p> <p>The rates of demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions were examined in high AC field under various emulsion inlet flow rates from 100 ml/min to 1500 ml/min and different applied voltages from 1-5 kV (equivalent to 14-69 kV/m) by using a model of an electrostatic separator combined with silane PHP as absorber. It was found that the best separation efficiency was 91% with applied voltage of 5 kV and emulsion inlet flow rate of 100 ml/min. When the spent silane PHP was reused in the demulsification process under similar conditions, a separation efficiency of up to 73% was achieved. Also, it was noticed that the separation efficiency was increased with the increase in applied voltage and reduction in the inlet flow rate of emulsion. Moreover, the original or spent silane PHP were able to remove the undesired metals present in the crude oil.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Demulsification; Emulsion flow rate; Separation efficiency; Electrostatic Separator; &nbsp;Electric field strength.</p> Dr. Abbas K. Algburi Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 11 4 91 113 10.52716/jprs.v11i4.565 Microfacies Valuation of Kurra Chine Formation (Late Triassic) and Scenario of Depositional Basin Development in Northern and North Western Iraq https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/566 <p>The present study focuses on the evaluation for microfacies of Kurra Chine Formation (Late Triassic) in four oil wells: Jabal Kand (Kd-1), Ain Zalah (AZ-29), Butmah (Bm-15) and Alan (Aa-2). The formation is consisting of alternation of dark brown and black limestones, dolomite, anhydrite and ribbons of shale. Ten carbonate microfacies are distinguished based on fauna content, lithology, and texture as well as anhydrite and shale facies. The results of all microfacies and lithofacies, the Kurra Chine Formation was deposited under wide spectrum of depositional environments within carbonate ramp setting. Inner ramp deposits are more common in the formation's successions in Ain Zalah and Alan wells. While middle and outer ramp deposits are clearly showing in Butmah and Jabal Kand wells, as well as inner ramp deposits.&nbsp; According to unconformity surfaces, successions of formation were divided into three stratigraphic units, started in late Triassic (Early Carnian) age and ended in Early Jurassic. Thickness of these units are various in sections study which is caused by the differentiation of tectonic evidence and rate of subsidence.</p> Abdalaziz M. Al-Hamdani Mohammed S. Ali Maha M. Al Dabagh Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 11 4 1 19 10.52716/jprs.v11i4.566 The Legal Framework for the Authority of the Oil Products Distribution Company to Monitor the Implementation of Oil Contracts، an Analytical Study https://jprs.gov.iq/index.php/jprs/article/view/567 <p>The oversight authority during the implementation of oil contracts cannot be reviewed as a license for the petroleum products distribution company that it can use whenever it wants or leave it whenever it wants. Rather، this authority is a duty for the oil products distribution company to exercise by virtue of its hegemony over the regulation of the public utility، and what this requires in terms of application of principles that governs the functioning of the facilities as a guarantee of their regular and steady functioning.</p> <p>&nbsp;Manifestations of management authority in oversight during the implementation of oil contracts are clear when stipulated in laws، regulations، instructions or in the contract، and this typical picture of the management's exercise of this authority، and we find the authority of control echoed outside the texts، that is، even in the case of silence of the contract and the regulatory texts. The distribution of petroleum products is responsible for regularly performing services and satisfying public needs through the contractor constructing and operating filling stations and distributing point products. Also, it is the original authority and an important guarantee for the benefit of the public utility.</p> Kadhim Mutashar shebeeb Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 11 4 20 40 10.52716/jprs.v11i4.567