Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies JPRS is quarterly scientific, issued by Ministry of Oil / Petroleum Research and Development Center (PRDC)/ Baghdad/ Iraq, which holds the international numbering (Print ISSN-2220-5381), (Online ISSN : 2710-1096) and has certificate (accreditation) from the Ministry of Higher Education and scientific research under the supervision of a group of professors and oil experts, as well as two professors who affiliated to University PLYMOUTH, (UK) and another is Consultant and Adjunct Faculty at the Colorado School of Mines and the University of Houston , (USA), the first issued was in 2010 \August.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal has excellent scientific level since first issued, evaluation techniques for researches and studies which followed aimed towards developed scientific and technical level. PRDC seeks to produce the journal in the best way because of the importance it represents in disseminating the scientific achievements in the oil sector as well as the research of students in the Ministry of higher Education and scientific research.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Concerned with publishing researches and studies related to the oil industry in the fields of:</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Petroleum Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Geology</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemistry</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemical Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Environment</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Oil Economy</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Renewable Energy. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal's website provides Open access and free in charge (download, publication) for authors, readers and institutions.</span></p> Petroleum Research and Development Center en-US Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies 2220-5381 Anti-collision Analysis of Pad Drilling and Optimization of Wellbore Trajectory: A Field Case Study <p>Errors can occur in the wellbore position according to the fact the survey tools are not completely accurate; therefore, prediction of well path position is imperative for safe and cost-effective drilling operation. The aim of this paper is an analysis of collision avoidance as well as assessment and optimization of wellbore trajectory for minimizing the risk of collision by applying different anti-collision and planning techniques. Thus, anti-collision analysis of pad drilling in the Iraqi oil field has been investigated using Industry Steering Committee for Wellbore Survey Accuracy (ISCWSA) error model to estimate the wellbores position and assess their separation using different techniques available in the industry. Three actual offset wells X1, X2, X3, and one proposed principal X4 well in a drilling pad have been used in the collision avoidance model.&nbsp; Separation factor, ladder, and travel cylinder plots revealed a high possibility of X4 proposed well colliding with X3 actual offset well. The separation factor of 0.75 and 7.5 m center to center prove that the current design of X4 principal design doesn’t meet the anti-collision standards, accordingly, a design revision must be highly considered. The field operator hasn’t revised the well design due to the lack in the assessment of anti-collision risks, thus, the survey service company has advised the operator to modify the predetermined well trajectory due to major risk of collision with X3 offset well and the well has been sidetracked. After reviewing and optimizing the well trajectory by using slant and optimum align (curve hold curve) planning methods, the anti-collision results have been greatly improved. The results showed that, through adopting an adequate anti-collision risk assessment and the modified well design, problems associated with the execution of the improper well design could be totally eliminated.</p> Wisam I. Al-Rubaye Dhiaa S. Ghanem Ali M. Saleem Hayder A. Al-Attabi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 12 2 1 12 10.52716/jprs.v12i2.654 Evaluation of Main Pay- Zubair Formation after Operations Re-Injection of Produced Water Directly In Rumaila Oil Field Norths under Matrix Condition <p>The water injection program is a key part of Rumaila oilfield long-term development plan to raise pressure levels in reservoirs. This water injection program has involved project of produced water re-injection (PWRI) directly. Although PWRI is most economical method for disposal of produced water and reduces environmental pollution risks but it can causes impairment in formation permeability due to contain it on suspended and dissolved solids that can plug porous media. Therefore, it is essential conduct fluid-rocks compatibility experiments and analysis to evaluation PWRI. The experimental work was carried out in Department of Laboratory and Quality Control in Basra Oil Company, using waterflooding apparatus. The compatibility experiments were applied on five core selected from Main Pay - Zubair formation that has very high permeability with 40 liter produced water at North-Rumaila oilfield. The main purpose of this work is evaluation of PWRI by studying the reduction of permeability(formation damage). The maximum damage degree is 71% and the minimum damage degree is 55% with average value 68.2%. The main causes to impairment permeability are present high concentration from suspended solids in PW.&nbsp; The damage is start from maximum degree&nbsp; near wellbore and&nbsp; gradually decreasing away from injection well and the permeability start jump up. The damage zone is propagate symmetrical around axial wellbore injector and connect together formed roughly circular dish. In this paper we establish table of monitor for help to minimize formation damage.&nbsp; Based on these results, we can concludes, direct injection of produced water into Zubair formation without surface treatments or&nbsp; washing of formation or acidizing treatment&nbsp; or injection under fracture conditions causes formation damage and increases with time.</p> Ali Farhan Nader Rana Muhammad Jassim Walid Mahdi Saleh Mahdi Saleh Abdullah Ali Qassem Atwan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 12 2 13 36 10.52716/jprs.v12i2.655 Iron Ionic Imprinted Polymers IIps for Separation and Preconcentration of Iron from Crude and Fuel Oil <p>A novel Iron ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) was synthesized by bulk polymerization using different types of monomers such as 1-vinyl imidazole and Styrene, respectively. Molar ratios of monomer, template and cross-linking agent for polymerization, various monomers and solvents were studied to obtain the largest adsorption capacity for Iron. The prepared Iron-IIPs were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier - transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM).</p> <p> The three-dimensional network structure surfaces of Iron-IIPs are unaffected by the elution procedure. Iron ions were successfully eluted from IIPs using a mixed solution from ethanol and acetic acid. The maximum adsorption capacity of Iron-IIPs was is (514.5)µmol/g for Iron-IIP1(using styrene as a monomer) and (429.1) µmol/g for Iron-IIP2(using 1-vinyl imidazole as a monomer). The adsorption by Iron-IIPs followed a Langmuir isotherm models. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) syringe packed with ionic imprinted polymers (IIPs) were used to selective separation for Iron ion from Crude or fuel oil and digest the polymer to determination the Iron by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) Abbreviation IIP-SPE-FAAS.</p> Hassan Noori Mohsen Yehya Kamal Al-Bayati Rana Rasool Jalil Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 12 2 27 46 10.52716/jprs.v12i2.656 Study The Effect of The Main Variables on The Objectives of The Natural Gas Dehydration Plant by ASPEN-HYSYS v8.8 <p>In the NGD process, TEG dehydration is commonly employed to prevent corrosion and blockage of equipment, valves, and piping systems. TEG is frequently lost in the system during this procedure owing to vaporization and carryover. Therefore, it is necessary to study the affection of variables of the dehydration process the process was simulated with ASPEN-HYSYSV8.8 and the thermodynamic model was glycol-package; the process was validated by comparing the Plant results with the simulation results and demonstrating good acceptance. ASPEN-HYSYS conducted a sensitivity study to investigate the impact of variables on the main objectives. , as this study showed that not all of these variables have a strong effect, some of them have a weak effect, for example (wet gas pressure and same case of solvent pressure) and the rest of the variables have a strong effect on this process, so it must be taken into consideration by the station operators where this The changes were targeted because they are subject to change within the plant, and the highest value and the smallest value were taken according to the factory's parameters. As these variables are taken into account and the requisite improvements are made, the natural gas drying process will improve, and the dry gas requirements needed will improve, resulting in increased benefit.</p> Ali Sameer Ismail Al-Jammali Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 12 2 47 63 10.52716/jprs.v12i2.657 Comparison between Conventional and Metakaolin bi-functional Catalyst in the Hydrodesulfurization Operation <p>The present study investigates hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of gas oil with 9300 ppm (0.93 wt%) sulfur supplied from Al-Dura Refinery by using an economic catalyst prepared from raw mineral (kaolin clay) cemented by alumina as composite support alumina meta-kaolin (AMK). Characterization of the prepared catalyst was achieved by using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis&nbsp; (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), BET surface area, pore volume , Bulk density, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). AMK was modified as a bifunctional catalyst with active metal (Co and Mo). The hydrodesulfurization (HDS) efficiency was evaluated and compared with the traditional catalyst (CoMo-Al2O3) in a hydrotreating reaction carried out in one stage reactor at temperature 375 oC, pressure 40 bar, LHSV 1hr-1, and H2/HC ratio 200 vol. ratio.&nbsp; 62.2% and 90% of hydrodesulfurization efficiency were achieved for prepared catalyst (CoMo-AMK) and commercial CoMo-Al2O3 respectively at the same operating conditions.</p> Khlood S. AlKhafaji Bashir Y. Al-Zaidi Zaidoon M. Shakor Sattar J. Hussein Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 12 2 64 80 10.52716/jprs.v12i2.658 Drag Reduction of AL-Ahdab Crude Oil Using Chemical Additives <p>The viscosity of crude oil has a crucial role in drag reduction during pipeline transportation; hence additives are required to enhancing the flow properties of AL-Ahdab crude oil. In this work, the potato starch biopolymer and CTAB surfactant are utilized to achieve the target. The drag reduction experiments were carried out at different crude oil flow rates (20-35-50 liters/min), pipe diameters (0.5-0.75 -1 inch), and different concentrations of potato starch (500-2000 ppm) and CTAB (100-500 ppm). The results showed that these additives had minimized flow resistance in various operating conditions, the drag reduction percent increased with increasing of additives concentration increase. The maximum drag reduction achieved using CTAB and potato starch is 41.6% and 36.3%, respectively, at 50 liters/min and 1-inch pipe diameter.</p> Talib M. Subkh Hussein Q. Hussein Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 12 2 81 96 10.52716/jprs.v12i2.659 Effectiveness Enhancement of the Double Tube Heat Exchanger Using ZnO Nanofluid <p>In this study, the effect of adding zinc oxide nanoparticles to the reversible effect double tube heat exchanger with a length of 1.5 meters, an outer diameter of 19.0 mm, is made of copper material that is used by Nano water as a cold liquid. Zinc solid nanoparticles with a volume concentration of 3% were used with water as the base liquid. The cold nanoscale water flows into the real tube with a volume of 4 L/min which enters into the heat exchanger at 16°C, where the hot water flows into the separator of the heat exchanger representing a blank volume of 6 L/min. The Reynolds number range and flowrate ranges are 10000 to 20000 and 5 to 15 respectively. The heat exchanger was introduced at a temperature of 65°C. An improvement in the performance of the exchanger was shown in the case of using water with the addition of nanoparticles</p> Hussein Fadhil Kadhim Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 12 2 97 109 10.52716/jprs.v12i2.660 Adsorption of Some Heavy Elements on Surface of Activated Carbonized Cellulose from Aqueous Solution <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this study the activated carbonized cellulose in (350 ºC) by citric acid have been used to remove some heavy metals (Hg Cd, Cu, Pb) from its aqueous solution at room temperature. The adsorbed metals data applied on three adsorption isotherm models, Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin isotherms. The adsorption results were very good fitted with isotherm models by the (R2) meaningful value. The removal metals adsorbed on surface of adsorbent from high to the less remove arranged according to its ability depending on the nature and size of metals. The free energy (ΔG) and constants of the adsorption process (Ɵ, n, kf, kT, b, bT) for copper, lead and cadmium were measured from isotherm curves, infra-red spectrums of the activated carbonized cellulose and cellulose itself were measured by FTIR spectrophotometer.</p> Dr. Ghassan Burhan Yaqoob Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 12 2 110 122 10.52716/jprs.v12i2.661 Investment Trends in the Iraqi Oil Sector (Upstream – Oil Refining – Gas Treatment - Transportation - Distribution) (2003 – 2020) <p>The paper deals with the analysis of indicators of changes in investment in the oil sector in Iraq to study the traditional patterns and the current patterns developed for oil investment in the extractive, transformational and distributive fields that were employed in Iraq to redraw the map of the economy in general and the oil industry in particular. The paper proceeds from the premise that the licensing rounds that took place in the Iraqi oil sector did not show their tangible results for internal and external reasons that were diagnosed. The study reached the main conclusion that the real performance and progress in the Iraqi oil sector was unbalanced and slow in some areas and that investment in it would create a balance between the urgent needs for expansion of investment projects and their capital requirements.</p> Aysar Y. Fahad Hisham Yas Shaalan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 12 2 123 147 10.52716/jprs.v12i2.662 Auditing the Occupational Health and Safety Management System according To the Specification (ISO 19011: 2018) / a case study in the Ministry of Oil / Studies, Planning and Follow-up Directorate <p>The research aims to provide an internal audit program on the requirements of the occupational health and safety management system in accordance with the international standard (ISO 45001: 2018) based on the guidelines of the standard (ISO 19011: 2018) in Studies, Planning and Follow-up Directorate - Ministry of Oil, as the research stems from the problem represented by weak procedures The internal audit of the occupational health and safety management system, which in turn led to the creation of a set of gaps in the requirements for the application of the occupational health and safety management system in accordance with the requirements of the standard (ISO 45001: 2018), and in order to reach the scientific facts, the case study approach was adopted, which includes direct observation and field visits. And personal interviews, and the checklist approved in the research was used, which was prepared based on the requirements of the specification (ISO 45001: 2018). Therefore, the results of the research showed the presence of (3) major non-conformities and (22) minor non-conformities and the installation of a group of Improvement opportunities that help to complete all aspects of the application of the occupational health and safety management system in Studies, Planning and Follow-up Directorate.</p> Faaza S. Balkat Areej S. Khaleel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 12 2 1 22 10.52716/jprs.v12i2.663 Iraq Crude Oil Exports – January, February and March 2020 <p>Table 1. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – January 2020<br>Table 2. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – February 2020<br>Table 3. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – March 2020</p> ministry of oil - Oil Marketing Company (SOMO) Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 12 2 1 4 10.52716/jprs.v12i2.664