Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies JPRS is quarterly scientific, issued by Ministry of Oil / Petroleum Research and Development Center (PRDC)/ Baghdad/ Iraq, which holds the international numbering (Print ISSN-2220-5381), (Online ISSN : 2710-1096) and has certificate (accreditation) from the Ministry of Higher Education and scientific research under the supervision of a group of professors and oil experts, as well as two professors who affiliated to University PLYMOUTH, (UK) and another is Consultant and Adjunct Faculty at the Colorado School of Mines and the University of Houston , (USA), the first issued was in 2010 \August.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal has excellent scientific level since first issued, evaluation techniques for researches and studies which followed aimed towards developed scientific and technical level. PRDC seeks to produce the journal in the best way because of the importance it represents in disseminating the scientific achievements in the oil sector as well as the research of students in the Ministry of higher Education and scientific research.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Concerned with publishing researches and studies related to the oil industry in the fields of:</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Petroleum Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Geology</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemistry</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemical Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Environment</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Oil Economy</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Renewable Energy. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal's website provides Open access and free in charge (download, publication) for authors, readers and institutions.</span></p> en-US (shatha fadhil) (shatha fadhil) Sun, 11 Sep 2022 11:03:07 +0300 OJS 60 Characterization of Structural Geology of Faihaa Oilfield, Southern Iraq <p> Faihaa Oilfield is a new exploration Iraqi Oilfield located in southern Iraq and within Mesopotamian Plain, including the Block 9 exploration area, along the Iraqi-Iranian border. The study area included Faihaa Oilfield (in Iraq) and Yadavaran Oilfield (in Iran). They belong to one anticline (Dome) structure separated by the Iraqi-Iranian border, without a geological boundary between the fields. The current study aims to achieve structural geology analysis to the study area (Faihaa/Yadavaran structure). The structural analysis included geometric and genetic analyses of the study area. According to geometric and genetic analyses results, the Faihaa/Yadavaran structure is classified as an anticline, gentle, upright, non-plunge, and asymmetrical. According to thickness variation, there are two types of formations’ folds are recognized, Thickened and Supratenuous fold generated by two folding mechanisms bending and buckle mechanisms. Bending form Supratenuous fold, perhaps due to the vertical uplift of salt structure and/or basement faults, while buckle produces Thickened fold because of the parallel tectonic movement causes collision between Arabian Plate and Eurasian Plate. Consequently, a special strain pattern was formed and the reservoir quality in the crest of Mishrif and Yamama Formations was the best. The fold axis of the Faihaa/Yadavaran structure has a Boomerang shape, whereas it is almost straight from south to the center of the structure, then tends to the NW with different deviations over the study area formations. This direction may be due to the anticlockwise rotation of the Arabian Plate motion. The results of geometric and genetic analyses revealed that may be Faihaa/Yadavaran structure is one structural trap formed by tectonic activities; Hormuz salt structures, reactivated Basement faults, and Collision between Arabian and Eurasian Plates. The intensity of the tectonic activities of the study area maybe be less than surrounding Oilfields, therefore, the Faihaa Oilfield formation's depth was deeper than adjacent Oilfields.</p> Aymen Lazim, Huda F. Khazaal, Madhi A.R. Swadi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Sun, 11 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The Structural and Stress Analysis of Hemrin North Structure, North of Iraq. <p>&nbsp; The study focused on the results of first paleostress from thrust fault slip data on Tertiary age of Hemrin North Structure, North of Iraq. The stress inversion was performed for fault slip data using an improved right dihedral model, and then followed by rotational optimization (Georient Software). The trend of the principal stress axes (σ1, σ2 and σ3) and the ratio of the principal stress differences (R) show the main paleostress field is NE-SW compression regime. As well as using Lisle graph and Mohr diagram to determine the magnitudes of palestress.&nbsp; The values paleostress of the study area were σ1=1430 bars, σ2=632 bars and σ3=166 bar. The large magnitudes of the primary stress axes could be attributed to active tectonic processes that caused pre-Tertiary deformation.</p> Buraq A. H. Al-baldawi, Atheer E.K. AL-Hachem Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Sun, 11 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Non-Productive Time Reduction during Oil Wells Drilling Operations <p>Often there is no well drilling without problems. The solution lies in managing and evaluating these problems and developing strategies to manage and scale them. Non-productive time (NPT) is one of the main causes of delayed drilling operations. Many events or possibilities can lead to a halt in drilling operations or a marginal decrease in the advancement of drilling, this is called (NPT). Reducing NPT has an important impact on the total expenditure, time and cost are considered one of the most important success factors in the oil industry. In other words, steps must be taken to investigate and eliminate loss of time, that is, unproductive time in the drilling rig in order to save time and cost and reduce wasted time. The data of six oil wells were approved for the purpose of the study, where it was noted that there are many factors affecting the NPT, which differ from one well to another. Its impact was limited to drilling rig, mud pump and equipment failure. There is also a difference between the planned program and what is actually happening on the ground, due to several reasons, including human errors during the implementation of the drilling program and others due to technical errors, Misuse of equipment, in addition to human errors related to the failure to implement the drilling program.</p> Amel H. Assi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Sun, 11 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Distribution of Petrophysical Properties Based on Conceptual Facies Model, Mishrif Reservoir/South of Iraq <p>A 3D geological model is an essential step to reveal reservoir heterogeneity and reservoir properties distribution. In the present study, a three-dimensional geological model for the Mishrif reservoir was built based on data obtained from seven wells and core data. The methodology includes building a 3D grid and populating it with petrophysical properties such as (facies, porosity, water saturation, and net to gross ratio). The structural model was built based on a base contour map obtained from 2D seismic interpretation along with well tops from seven wells. A simple grid method was used to build the structural framework with 234x278x91 grid cells in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively, with lengths equal to 150 meters. The total number of grids is (5919732) in the geological model. CPI (computer-processed interpretation) for 7 wells contain (facies, porosity, water saturation, and NTG) was imported to Petrel 2016 software. Facies log was upscaled and distributed along the 3D grid. Truncated Gaussian with trend method was used to distribute the facies taking into account the conceptual facies model of the Mishrif formation. The result shows that the trend of sedimentation suggests a retrogradation pattern from NW to SE. Facies1 (Reservoir), dominated by Limestone brown to light brown, with oil shows has good distribution within the area and thinning towards the NW. The petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, NTG, and permeability) were distributed using the Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SIS) method and the facies model as a guide for distribution.</p> <p>The results show that petrophysical properties enhanced in the southeast area, representing the reef region compared to the northwest side of the study area. Unit Mishrif B had the highest porosity value and lower water saturation value along the entire field. While the units Mishrif B1, B2, and B3 show a gradual decrease in reservoir properties towards the field's southeast side. The results also show that the conceptual facies model has great benefit in constructing the 3D geological model, reflecting the geological knowledge used to correctly distribute the reservoir properties (porosity and water saturation).</p> Samira M. Hamd-Allah, Osamah Sh. Abbas, Mohammed K. Dhaidan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Sun, 11 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Effect of heat and mass transfer on corrosion of carbon steel in a crude oil medium using corrosion inhibitors sodium nitrate and castor oil under different circumstances <p>In the petroleum industry, corrosion is a fundamental problem that causes many operational and commercial problems, which require careful consideration and comprehensive studies in order to discover suitable solutions. Among these problems is the occurrence of corrosion in the crude oil production equipment as well as in the transportation pipelines of petroleum products, which leads to their failure; thus, increasing the cost as a result of maintenance or replacement. To protect them from corrosion, different types of inhibitors are commonly used, in which small amounts of inhibitor are continuously injected, slowly forming a thin layer of inhibitor between them and the corrosive materials to protect them from corrosion.</p> <p>In this study, the performance of the corrosion process was examined under varying temperatures, namely 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C, at rotational speeds of 0, 500, 1250 and 2000 rpm. The concentrations of sodium nitrate (NaNO<sub>3</sub>) inhibitor were 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/l of crude oil, whereas the concentrations of castor oil inhibitor were 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ml/l of crude oil. The results demonstrated that the corrosion rate of carbon steel in the crude oil decreases with the increase in the concentration of both types of inhibitors (NaNO<sub>3</sub> and castor oil), while it increases with the rise in temperature and rotational speed. It was determined that the maximum efficiency of the green inhibitor (castor oil) in the crude oil was 93.7% at a concentration of 1.5 ml/l, temperature of 20 °C and a rotational speed of 0 rpm, while the maximum efficiency of the chemical inhibitor (NaNO<sub>3</sub>) in the crude oil was 98.6% at a concentration of 1.5 g/l, temperature of 20 ℃ and rotational speed of 0 rpm.</p> Abbas Kh. Ibrahim Algburi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Sun, 11 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Improving the Heat Transfer using Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Suspended in Water Flow through Circular Tube <p>The new class of pressure drop and heat transfer enhancement through pipes and heat exchangers is defined a nano-fluid. The applications of this process are the cooling of oil inside heat exchanger and the flow of oil into the pipe line. In this work, the prediction of heat transfers and friction factor in a heated tube is studied. ANSYS software of CFD simulation through the geometrical problem undertaken was utilized. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles suspended in pure water has been adopted to flow through the test rig under ranges of nanoparticles mass concentrations and Reynolds number 1% to 4% and 4000 to 10000 respectively. The numerical results show that the friction factor and heat transfer enhancement increase as increase of nanoparticles mass concentrations 23% and 4% respectively. Additionally, the heat transfer is increased and the friction factor is decreased as increase of Reynolds number. It was concluded that Nusselt number increases due to add the solid nanoparticles to the water but slightly increases of pumping power. This obtained results are validated with the available data in the literature.</p> hamed J. Hussain Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Sun, 11 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The Utilization of Magnetized Water for the Improvement of Crude Oil Quality <p>The crude oil binds from the oil fields to the refinery with water. This water contains dissolved salts, mostly chloride salts (CaCl<sub>2</sub>, NaCl, MgCl<sub>2</sub>), which are one of the components of the water emulsion in crude oil leading to the contamination of the crude oil. This pollution has a serious negative impact on the refinery units if left untreated, causing many Problems such as (corrosion, sedimentation, blockage of exchanger tubes and furnaces, and other problems). As a result, it is necessary to treat the crude oil salts and remove the effect of the salts by desalinating the oil at different stages during production at the wells and then in the refinery unit. Desalination is the main equipment used in the process of washing crude oil from salts using ordinary freshwater</p> <p> This work aims to use magnetized water as a substitute for normal water in the stage of washing crude oil salts by installing a water magnetization device with strength of (4500) gauss, at the site of the washing water injection line before the mixing valve at the desalination remover. The results showed that the magnetized water increased the efficiency and energy of the water used, reduced the deposition of salts and corrosion in the tubes of the distillation unit, as well as helped to crack the salt ions and transform its molecules into smaller particles and reduce their concentration in the crude oil.</p> Samer N. Shatub Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Sun, 11 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The Role of Oil Industry in the Iraqi Economy Form 2005-2020 / Analysis Study <p>It became clear through research that the Iraqi economy depends largely on oil by virtue of its possession of huge oil reserves; 92.46% of general America, 51.54% of GDP, and more than 99% of merchandise exports.</p> <p>Due to the weakness of politics, social, and economic issues, the revenues of exporting oil has led to the reverse feedback on the financial stability, continuity, and even the exacerbation of unemployment due to fluctuations in oil prices in the international energy markets, which cannot be controlled by the one side that is made with capital-intensity, not labor-intensity resulting an unemployment into the community.</p> <p>Finally, it was concluded that the use of oil in the right way can serve the economy and society, facing internal challenges such as corruption, for example, and external ones such as Dutch disease, diversifying public financial sources, and creating front and back links between the sectors of the economy, leading to diversification of the economy and moving away from oil unilateralism.</p> Hamed Alamlah Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Sun, 11 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Iraq Crude Oil Exports – April, May, June/ 2020 <p>Table 1. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – April 2020<br>Table 2. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – May 2020<br>Table 3. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – June 2020</p> Ministry of Oil - Oil Marketing Company SOMO Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Sun, 11 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0300