Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies JPRS is quarterly scientific, issued by Ministry of Oil / Petroleum Research and Development Center (PRDC)/ Baghdad/ Iraq, which holds the international numbering (Print ISSN-2220-5381), (Online ISSN : 2710-1096) and has certificate (accreditation) from the Ministry of Higher Education and scientific research under the supervision of a group of professors and oil experts, as well as two professors who affiliated to University PLYMOUTH, (UK) and another is Consultant and Adjunct Faculty at the Colorado School of Mines and the University of Houston , (USA), the first issued was in 2010 \August.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal has excellent scientific level since first issued, evaluation techniques for researches and studies which followed aimed towards developed scientific and technical level. PRDC seeks to produce the journal in the best way because of the importance it represents in disseminating the scientific achievements in the oil sector as well as the research of students in the Ministry of higher Education and scientific research.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Concerned with publishing researches and studies related to the oil industry in the fields of:</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Petroleum Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Geology</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemistry</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemical Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Environment</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Oil Economy</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Renewable Energy. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal's website provides Open access and free in charge (download, publication) for authors, readers and institutions.</span></p> en-US [email protected] (shatha fadhil) [email protected] (shatha fadhil) Wed, 15 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Iraq Crude Oil Exports – October, November, December/ 2020 <p>Table 1. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – October 2020<br>Table 2. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – November 2020<br>Table 3. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – December 2020</p> Ministry of Oil / Oil Marketing Company SOMO Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Wed, 15 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0300 studying The Boundaries of The Tectonic Zones South of Latitude 32◦ of Iraq Using Trend Surface Analysis method <p>A geophysical study investigation was conducted in the southern part of Iraq bounded by coordinates; longitudes (39◦ - 48◦) East and latitude (29◦ - 32◦) North. This study includes analysis and interpretation of the potential data (gravity and magnetic) derived from the Bouguer anomaly map and Aeromagnetic total field intensity map of Iraq both of them is within the scale of (1: 1,000,000) and do comparison with the information available from geological maps, which include Tectonic, Hydrological and Geological information.</p> <p>Gravity and Magnetic maps of the study area were digitized at a grid interval of (1×1) cm which is equivalent to (10×10) km on the land. The trend surface technique was applied on the Bouguer anomaly map of the area. Through these analyses there are three tectonic boundaries have been proposed (A, B, and C). Results were compared with potential analyses of available geological information which match some faults proposed through data analysis with other geological information.</p> ban Talib, Emad H. Al-Khersan, Ahmed S. Al-Banna Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Wed, 15 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Artificial Neural Networks to Predict Lost Circulation Zones at Southern Iraq Oilfield <p>Drilling soft and fragile areas such as (high permeable, cavernous, fractured, and sandy formations) have several problems. One of the most critical problems is the loss of drilling fluid into these formations in whole or part of the well. The loss of drilling fluid can lead to more significant and complex problems, such as pipe sticking, well kick, and closing the well. The drilling muds are relatively expensive, especially oil-based mud or those that contain special additives, so it is not economically beneficial to waste and lose these muds. Artificial neural networks (ANN) can predict drilling fluid losses before they occur based on drilling parameters data and drilling fluid properties of wells effected by lost circulation problems located in the same area. This paper developed two artificial neural network models to predict drilling fluid losses in the Dammam formation- Rumaila oil field in southern Iraq. The two models have the same topology and structure. The first model used the early stopping technique to stop the training when we get the global minimum and the second model used specific epochs to complete the training. The models could predict various types of losses with high accuracy. The accuracy of implementing R2 for the first and second models was 0.9302 and 0.9493, respectively. The early stopping technique lead to obtain a model with acceptable accuracy in a short time without relying on a specific number of epochs.</p> ameen K. salih, Hassan A. Abdul Hussein, Sarah H. Hamza Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Wed, 15 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0300 A Numerical Study of Tertiary Oil Recovery by Injection of Low-Salinity Water <p>The injection of Low Salinity Water (LSWI) as an Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) method has recently attracted a lot of attention. Extensive research has been conducted to investigate and identify the positive effects of LSWI on oil recovery.</p> <p>In order to demonstrate the impact of introducing low salinity water into a reservoir, simulations on the ECLIPSE 100 simulator are being done in this work. To simulate an actual reservoir, an easy static model was made. In order to replicate the effects of injecting low salinity water and normal salinity, or seawater, the reservoir is three-phase with oil, gas, and water. It has one injector and one producer.</p> <p>Five cases were suggested to investigate the effect of low salinity water injection with different concentrations and the period of injection.</p> <p>The low salinity injection period varied from twenty-five years in case one and reduced five years in each case until reached to five years in final case.</p> <p>Higher oil recovery factor obtained in case one with injection time twenty-five years and lower recovery factor for case five with injection time of low salinity water injection five years.</p> <p>Lower water concentration gives higher oil recovery for all cases where this study investigated the effect of low-salinity water flooding as slug injection.</p> <p>From the five cases presented, field oil recovery factor (FOE), field oil production rate (FOPR), field oil production total (FOPT), field pressure (FP), and field water cut (FWCT) were observed. Oil recovery is 56.6 percent in high salinity water flooding (HSWF), and 71.8 percent in low salinity water flooding (LSWF) for 0 percent salt concentration and 62.40 percent for 20 percent salt concentration as in case one.</p> ahmed radhi wattan, Mohammed S. aljwad, Usama S. Alameedy Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Wed, 15 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Intelligent Approach for Investigating Reservoir Heterogeneity Effect on Sonic Shear Wave <p>Heterogeneity refers to a not uniform distribution of reservoir properties. To overcome the problem of heterogeneity, most reservoir studies split the reservoir into different zones. In general, this disparity affects all log tools. Sonic shear wave time (SSW) is a critical metric in geomechanical modeling that is strongly influenced by reservoir heterogeneity and the kind of porous fluid composition. To detect the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on SSW prediction, an artificial neural network (ANN) was applied as an intelligent technique. One Iraqi vertical well that penetrated the Asmari reservoir was selected for this study. It contains 2462 SSW measured points as well as the following seven log parameters: Gamma Ray, Caliper, Density, Neutron, Compressional sonic, and True resistivity log over measured depth. Based on formation assessment and available well data, the Asmari reservoir was classified into six zones (with different lithology and different fluid content): A, B1, B2, B3, B4, and C. To investigate the effect of lithology on SSW, two runs of ANN had been conducted in this study.</p> <p>Initially, we developed a single ANN for all 2462 measured points, while in the second, six ANNs were built, one for each zone. The optimum structure for all the developed ANNs was obtained with one hidden layer of 12 neurons (7-12-1). The statistical parameters used for comparison are average percent error (APE), absolute average percent error (AAPE), standard deviation (SD), mean square error (MSE), and correlation coefficient (R2). It was observed that these parameters are approximately close to each other for the developed seven ANNs. The R2 values of the seven ANNs are 0.98 for all zones, and 0.99, 0.99, 0.99, 0.99, 0.99 and 0.96 for each zone respectively. The insignificant differences of results can be explained by the fact that the log readings (i.e. inputs variables) are already reflected the effect of lithology. Therefore, we recommended using the ANN based on 2462 for predicting SSW to any lithology zone. A mathematical model for representing the suggested ANN to simplify the calculation.</p> Jassim Mohammed Al Said Naji, Ghassan H. Abdul-Majeed, Alhuraishawy Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Wed, 15 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Thermal Analysis of Absorption Air Conditioning Cycle Using Glycerin in Hot and Cold Storage Tanks <p>Increasing demand for cooling operations in the oil and other sectors, this has led to an increase in electrical energy consumption. The most sustainable solution is to use absorption cooling technology by utilizing solar heat as driving energy instead of electricity. The primary advantage of absorptive cooling is lower electricity costs. In this study, the effect of changing the thermal storage capacities of hot and cold storage tanks and the solar collector area on the performance of the absorption air conditioning cycle was investigated. The optimum operating conditions, the maximum number of processing hours, and the optimum performance coefficient of the absorption conditioning cycle system were selected. The water-lithium bromide solution was used as a fluid in the sorption cycle, and glycerin was used in the hot and cold tank cycle and in the solar collector because it can with stands both high and low temperatures.</p> <p>The simulation process was carried out using (Fortran 90) program with the help of (Port log) program, (Carrier HAP420) program and (Curve Expert) program. The absorption conditioning cycle was simulated during the day to choose the best capacity for hot and cold storage tanks, as well as to choose the solar collector with the best performance factor. Changing the area of the solar collector (from 9.6 m<sup>2</sup> to 16.7 m<sup>2</sup>), and the volume of the hot tank (from 0.55 m3 to 1.4 m3) have been done to provide the maximum temperature that the hot tank can reach with varying expected cooling load per hour, as well as the size of the tank cold (from 0.9 m3 to 1.6 m3) which gets additional cooling capacity, since the effect of these variables was tested separately.</p> <p>According to the research results, the best and most suitable volume for the hot tank is (0.55 m3), and for the cold tank is (1.5 m3), and the best and appropriate area for a solar concentric collector is (11.7 m<sup>2</sup>), which can provide longer running hours. Finally, the higher the generator's temperature, the higher the system's coefficient of performance (COP). The lowest COP value (0.68) is used to guarantee that the system runs for longer periods of time.</p> Murad Nehad Mardan, Yaareb Elias Ahmed, Maher K. daham, Safad A. Hussein Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Wed, 15 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in Crude Oil by Using Different Green Corrosion Inhibitors and Various Rotation Speeds <p>Corrosion is a major problem in the petroleum industry, which often occurs to crude oil production equipment and to petroleum product transportation pipelines as well. In order to protect these parts from corrosion, much small quantities of inhibitors are constantly injected, which gradually formulate a fluffy layer of inhibitor over the metal surface so as to protect it from corrosion. Recently, the impact of corrosion inhibitors on the environment has been raising more attention and concern. New regulations related to environment have been designated, imposing a change in the use of toxic chemicals to the utilization of the so-called “green chemicals”. Experiments on carbon steel corrosion protection have been conducted in a medium of crude oil has an API gravity of 30.6 by using different concentrations, ranging between 100 – 400 ppm of different green inhibitors such as corn oil, sunflower oil, flaxseed oil and castor oil with a different rotation speeds, namely, 0, 500, 1250 and 2000 rpm. The weight loss outcomes have showed that the rate of carbon steel corrosion in the crude oil decreases with the rise of inhibitors’ concentration, while corresponds with the increase of the rotational speed. In addition, it was found that the maximum inhibition efficiency achieved for the inhibitors corn oil, sunflower oil, flaxseed oil and castor oil in crude oil was using a concentration of 400 ppm, a rotation speed of 0 rpm and an ambient temperature (25 °C) is 41.85%, 50.76%, 63.55% and 92.63%, respectively.</p> Abbas Khaleel Ibrahim Algburi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Wed, 15 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0300 A Study of Properties of Polyethylene Glycol and Its Glass Fibers Composites under UV-Rad for Oils Filtration Applications <p>This study determines the effects of UV radiation and heat treatment on many flow and mechanical parameters of PEG 4000, including flow time and viscosity (specific, reduced, relative, and intrinsic). Solubility time and shore D hardness are among the mechanical characteristics. By adjusting the concentrations of solutions in the range (0.01–0.03) g/ml of heating and non-heating PEG powders, and examining the polymer's solubility at the same time, the flow characteristics of the polymer are explored. Random glass fiber reinforcement in the range of 0.1–0.4 wt has also been studied to indicate the effect on shore hardness. After exposing the produced plates to ultraviolet light, the efficacy of the plates in purifying the oil from contaminants was investigated. The results show that increasing the concentration increases all types of viscosity and flow time, with the exception of intrinsic viscosity, which decreases as concentrations increase. Other parameters decrease after the first UV ray and heat treatment, but increase as the time of UV ray treatment increases. Furthermore, increasing the weight ratio of glass fibers from 0.1 to 0.4 wt lowered shore hardness, whereas increasing the weight ratio at the same previous range increased it after UV rad. While solubility data refers to increasing polymer weight and radiation help increase solubility time. The filtration efficacy of the small particles of the produced filters increased after the overlapping plates were exposed to UV radiation, owing to the smaller pore diameters. </p> Hanaa Jawad alesa, Balqees M. Al – Dabbagh Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Wed, 15 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Isothermal adsorption models: mini-focused observations <p>Adsorption is kinetically time-dependence controlled retention/ release mobility as a natural phenomenon in base and applicable in industry or in science. It is well-studied and modulated by known Langmuir, Temkin, Freundlich, and other models to describe how it occurred and explains kinetic- thermodynamic material behaviour.</p> <p>Linear and/ or non- linear expressions may take place according to the theoretical base of these models to conclude the layer formation, uniformity besides reaction reversibility, and favourability from kinetic- thermodynamic principles.</p> <p>Coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) is a mean variation of data or a degree of proper or fitting as mostly used in kinetic and isotherm literatures. In adsorption investigations, experimental physical- chemical conditions and error sources are the main influenced factors, for example, at surface coverage (or inhibition efficiency) in corrosion treatments or adsorption capacity in pollution subject. Linearity variation will govern R<sup>2</sup> to predict adsorbate behaviour on adsorbent surface that is highly influenced by concentration, temperature, pH, type of measuring method, physical and chemical structures of the adsorbent and adsorbate, and error sources in each experiment.</p> Kafa K. Hammud Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Wed, 15 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Clean Energy Approach as Institutional Framework to Stimulate Investment in Arabic Green Economy <p> سعت هذه الدراسة لكشف العوامل التي تؤثر على إمكانية الوصول إلى الطاقة النظيفة في المنطقة العربية مما يتطلب استكشاف مصادر جديدة للطاقة النظيفة، وبذلك فإن أهداف المقالة الحالية هي دراسة تأثير الاستثمار الأخضر ومصادر الطاقة المتجددة (الطاقة الشمسية، والطاقة الحيوية، والطاقة المائية، وطاقة الرياح) على التنمية المستدامة في المنطقة من جهة توجيه صانعي السياسات إلى تطوير السياسات المتعلقة بالتنمية النظيفة و المستدامة لبناء اقتصاد أخضر، وقد توصلت الدراسة إلى أن تجسيد الهدف السابع من أهداف التنمية المستدامة يتطلب تحقيق الوصول العالمي إلى طاقة حديثة وموثوقة ومستدامة ومعقولة التكلفة بحلول عام 2030 تسعى أيضًا إلى زيادة حصة الطاقة المتجددة في مزيج الطاقة العالمي، وتحسين كفاءة الطاقة بنسبة 100٪ ثم توسيع البنية التحتية وتحسين تكنولوجيا الإمداد.</p> Khedidja Ziani, samia benyahia Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Wed, 15 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Penal Protection for The Environment from The Effects of Spilling Oil on The Ground <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; Oil wealth is one of the important topics that have received wide attention at the international and regional level due to its importance in all fields, and on the other hand because it poses a threat to the environment, public health and biological diversity due to its wrong use, so the Iraqi legislator was keen to criminalize pouring oil on the surface of the earth or injecting it into Classes that are used for human and agricultural purposes, and then he arranged punitive provisions on the perpetrator of the crime and made them fall under penalty of misdemeanor in terms of severity with the penalty of imprisonment, and his provisions represented by the legal basis for them were mentioned in the Iraqi Environmental Law No 27 of 2009 in force.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Mohammed A. Abed Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies Wed, 15 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0300