Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies JPRS is quarterly scientific, issued by Ministry of Oil / Petroleum Research and Development Center (PRDC)/ Baghdad/ Iraq, which holds the international numbering (Print ISSN-2220-5381), (Online ISSN : 2710-1096) and has certificate (accreditation) from the Ministry of Higher Education and scientific research under the supervision of a group of professors and oil experts, as well as two professors who affiliated to University PLYMOUTH, (UK) and another is Consultant and Adjunct Faculty at the Colorado School of Mines and the University of Houston , (USA), the first issued was in 2010 \August.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal has excellent scientific level since first issued, evaluation techniques for researches and studies which followed aimed towards developed scientific and technical level. PRDC seeks to produce the journal in the best way because of the importance it represents in disseminating the scientific achievements in the oil sector as well as the research of students in the Ministry of higher Education and scientific research.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Concerned with publishing researches and studies related to the oil industry in the fields of:</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Petroleum Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Geology</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemistry</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemical Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Environment</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Oil Economy</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Renewable Energy. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal's website provides Open access and free in charge (download, publication) for authors, readers and institutions.</span></p> en-US (shatha fadhil) (shatha fadhil) Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Analysis and Mitigation of High-Pressure and High-Temperature Well Completion Design of Elkin/Franklin Fields in the North Sea <p>The development of High-Pressure and High-Temperature (HP/HT) wells is accompanied by high risk, and still represents one of the greatest technological challenges for the oil and gas industry related to the equipments used and their ability to sustain these conditions. The results analysis of data is key to investigating reasons for bad performances and failures of well completion design and detecting at an early stage potential downhole events.<br>This paper applies machine learning to the results of real data analysis of deep and deviated well in the HP/HT environment. It presents techniques used to analyze design limits for the tubing string of the well with different rates of production and water injection, and predict pressure and temperature when multiple operations are applied to the tubular string during the well's lifetime. It also analyzes the most important parameters that impact the tubular string, such as temperature effect, safety factors, and tubing length change. A simulation model for a well has been developed to accomplish the objective of this work by using WellcatTM software modules (Prod &amp; Tube) based on real data from the Elgin/Franklin fields in the North Sea. Two designs of tubular string were used to analyze design limits; the first included a tubing size of 4 ½ in and a latched permanent packer, and the second was identical to the first one but included an expansion joint tool to allow free movement of the tubing, and it was used to mitigate the first well completion design failure. Based on the results of this paper, three load cases (produce-6 months, tubing leak, and water injection) failed in the first design when the rates of oil production and water injection were increased to 12000 bbl/d and 5000 bbl/d respectively, whilst all load cases fell into the triaxial envelope and met the axial criteria in the second design. Furthermore, the predicted results of pressure and temperature for the tubing and surroundings indicate the tubular string could be exposed to buckling problems and serious thermal expansion in the annulus. As well, tubing length can be changed (elongated or shortage) owing to thermal effects during multiple load cases.</p> Luay Hameed Shaheed Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Geological Study for the Outbreak of Fires Phenomenon in Al-Ruhban Oasis, An-Najaf Al-Ashraf <p>The current study focused on the phenomenon of the outbreak of fires and their causes in Al-Ruhban Oasis in terms of geologically, its economic importance and its environmental dimensions from the point of view of the Oil Exploration Company, depending on geological and geophysical information, laboratory analyzes and geochemical surveys that were carried out at the site of the phenomenon and the surrounding areas.<br>The region was affected by major fault systems of the usual type that reach the surface, that this type of fault reflects the region’s influence by structural forces represented by the vertical lifting movements of the basement dislocation, in addition to the marking of secondary faults that affected the shallow deflectors, and that these faults The secondary reflects that the region has been affected by other structural forces that have revitalized the old faults.<br>Laboratory analyzes of soil models at the site of the phenomenon and the surrounding areas indicated a clear discrepancy in the amount of pollution, as the surface models recorded very few percentages compared to the subsurface models that recorded the highest pollution values, where the highest values of hydrocarbon pollution were recorded, which indicates that hydrocarbon emissions have subsurface roots and that they are not only caused by surface pollution factors. Migratory hydrocarbon emissions from effective source rocks in the region or from potential oil and/or gas deposits in the region is one of the most important causes of fires in the Oasis of Al-Ruhban and is a direct indication of hydrocarbon presence.</p> Haider Ahmed Falih, Ali H. Hejooj Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Exploratory Seismic Geophysical Study of the Khanuqah Structure Area <p>Khanuqah structure area carried as the geophysics exploration study of Jeribe Formation target, the area located in the north of Iraq within Salah Aldeen Governorate, has been used geophysical data represented by 2D seismic lines were executed as exploratory surveys of 27 seismic lines, the data interpretations used by Petrel software (version 2018) based on the required aims, which are determined to achieve an update the structural model in Jeribe Fn. as a gas reservoir.<br>The results show the Khanaqah structure includes five domes, the general direction of the structure axis is northwest-southeast, a gradient of its slope from the northwest structurally higher to the southwestern part structurally lower, the southeastern part of the study area is an open basin that increases the level of depth lines relative to the mentioned part.<br>Seismic sections showed at the locations of structural domes the phenomenon of inter-spacing of seismic reflectors as tuning phenomena in reservoirs within Jeribe Fn. reservoir which is a direct index of the gas presence. To ensure tracking of extensions phenomena as a director for a gas presence, the seismic interpretations used a new technique by convert 2D seismic lines to 3D seismic cube through the reflections specifications publication of the khanaqah area, that shows the concerning of gaseous presence in the Khanaouqa-1 well and its disappearance in the Khanaouqa-2 well, it indicates the relationship between the location of the two wells at the structure, since Khanaouqa-1 well is structurally shallower than the Khanaouqa-2 well, which means that the well of Khanaouqa-2 is outside the scope of the gas patch, this was confirmed by the 3D seismic cube derived that showed the phenomenon presence on the site of Khanoqa-1 and did not appear in Khanoqa-2.<br>Due to the importance of developing the Khanuqah structure as a worthy gas field, the research recommended drilling an exploratory well at the location of dome- B, whose coordinated in the study area penetrating the Euphrates Fn. bearing in mind that Khanuqa-1 did not locate on the center site of the domes nor on the center site of the direct phenomenon as evidence of the gas existence.</p> Salar S. Hasan Al Karadaghi Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The Late Cretaceous X Reservoir petrophysics properties and its Oil Geochemistry in the Nameless Oilfield, Mesopotamian Basin, South Iraq <p>The X Formation, which dates from the Late Cenomanian to the early Turonian, is the largest carbonate reservoir in Iraq's South Mesopotamian Basin. There are two shallowing-up depositional periods in it, which begin with deep water mudstone associated with wackestone, which gradually shallows into rudist and is dominated by big foraminifera shoals and barriers, which are followed by lagoonal and intertidal facies. The identification of five distinct reservoir rock types, including mB2, mB1, CRII, mA, and CRI, was based on a combination of sediment types and diagenetic processes that influenced porosity types. The formation oil geochemical studies point to a Lower Cretaceous marine carbonate source depositional environment that is early mature and anoxic.</p> Fahad M. Al-Najm, Amer Jassim Al-Khafaji, Fadhil N. Sadooni Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Assessment of the Common PVT Correlations in Iraqi Oil Fields <p>Pressure volume temperature (PVT) analysis is the process of determining the fluid behaviors and properties of oil and gas samples from an existing well. Normally, PVT properties are experimentally measured in the laboratory. However, the absence of PVT measurement negatively impacts the application of many petroleum engineering calculations such as reserves estimation, material balance, reservoir simulation, production equipment design, and optimization of well performance.</p> <p>In this work, we developed a program using VBA and MS EXCEL to compare between the collected measurements of PVT properties that were collected from 41 Iraqi oil cruds and the values obtained from the correlations. After the comparison process, we chose the correlation that have the close values to the PVT measurements that were collected previously.</p> <p>This type of study, in which we compare the results of existing literature correlations to the measured value in a laboratory for a specific country or location, has been conducted in a number of countries, including Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, and Egypt, but not in Iraq, which is where the value of this study lies.</p> <p>A total of 92 correlations were involved in this study including, (19) Bubble point pressure, (10) gas-oil ratio, (20) oil FVF, (10) saturated Viscosity, (3) density at bubble point, (7) undersaturated oil compressibility, (12) dead viscosity, (3) undersaturated oil FVF, (8) undersaturated viscosity.</p> <p>Over all,&nbsp; the best performance was obtained using the “Elsharkawy and Alikhan<sup>&nbsp;[1]</sup> “correlation for ( Pb, Rs, Bo) , “Standing<sup>&nbsp;[2]</sup>” correlation for Density at bubble point , “Almehaideb<sup>&nbsp;[3]</sup>” for below bubble point viscosity , “Labedi&nbsp;[4]” for Dead viscosity, “Al-Marhoun<sup>&nbsp;[5]</sup>” for above bubble point oil FVF, “Standing<sup>&nbsp;[2]</sup>” for above bubble point oil compressibility, “Petrosky and Farshad<sup>&nbsp;[6]</sup>” for above bubble point viscosity, based on consistently low values of (AAPE) and (RMS) and cross plot.</p> Mohammed Q. Abd Talib, Mohammed S. Al-Jawad Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Using Smart Completion Technology to Control Water Coning Problems and Increase Oil Recovery in a Southern Iraqi Oilfield <p>This research describes the using of a new well completion technology system that enhance the homogeneous and heterogeneous reservoir deliverability and the production performance gained through a completion technique using Autonomous Inflow Control Valve (AICD) by self-decreasing/delaying water and gas progress and promoting increasing in oil production, therefore, equalizing the drawdown (∆P=Pi-Pwf) along the well and provide a dynamic water shut-off operation and significantly increasing the economic life of a well and therefore, reducing capital and operational expenditures for the field development.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The research presents a production performance simulation results for a conventional and smart well completion technology in a horizontal well in a southern Iraqi oilfield for two stages during well life; early stage (till 2018) and late stage (till 2033).&nbsp; For early stage of well life, there was no significant difference in results when comparing between the conventional completion design and the smart completion design. In the contrast, the simulation results for the late life of the well showed that the well can produce for approximately 1056.7 barrel per day crude oil with a water-cut of 82 % at the year of 2033. The also revealed that the results showed that the cumulative oil production from the year of 2018 till 2050 will be 23 million barrel of crude oil and 44 million barrel of water when the well is completed with conventional completion design. When the completion design has been changed and equipped with autonomous inflow control devices (AICDs) technology and simulated the production performance by NETool Software. The simulation results showed that the oil production has been increased by 891 barrel per day (1947.3 barrel per day) and the water cut has reduced significantly in comparison with the conventional production completion by 17 % (65.4 %) at the year of 2033. The results revealed that the cumulative oil production from the year of 2018 till 2050 will be 31 million barrel of crude oil and 33 million barrel of water.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It has been concluded, from the reservoir and production simulation, that the application of the technology is successful and showed a clear advantage of using Autonomous Inflow Control Device (AICD) that provides better water influx control profile.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Maitham Mezher Razaq, Ansaf Fadhi Hassan, Alameer Abdulkareem Radhi Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Smart Well Modelling for As Reservoir in AG Oil Field <p>Intelligent or smart completion wells vary from conventional wells. They have downhole flow control devices like Inflow Control Devices (ICD) and Interval Control Valves (ICV) to enhance reservoir management and control, optimizing hydrocarbon output and recovery. However, to explain their adoption and increase their economic return, a high level of justification is necessary.</p> <p>Smart horizontal wells also necessitate optimizing the number of valves, nozzles, and compartment length. A three-dimensional geological model of the As reservoir in AG oil field was used to see the influence of these factors on cumulative oil production and NPV. After creating the dynamic model for the As reservoir using the program Petrel (2017.4), we improve the robustness of forecasting production from smart wells using reservoir simulation. High-level details in the rock and fluid flow properties are required in the horizontal well region to capture the flow dynamics accurately. Thus, the study offers an enhanced method for predicting the performance of intelligent or smart wells in reservoir modeling.</p> <p>This model was history matched for a period of 20 years for three horizontal wells by using program Petrel (2017.4) and ECLIPS (2011). After successful validation of model on a field scale and well level, performance prediction was carried out to see the effect of (number of valves, number of nozzle and compartment length) using PICD/AFCV completion. Optimizing well performance entails lowering water-cut. From an economic viewpoint, the goal is to maximize NPV or profit, depending on the situation, from PICD wells, which compared to other wells.</p> Maaly S. Asad, Sameera M. Hamd-Alla Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Using Nahr Umr Aquifer as an Additional Source of Injection Water for the X Oilfield <p>Water injection is the main strategy to increase oil production and support reservoirs pressure in the X oilfield and almost any other oilfield. The available source for the water injection in X field is the Qarmat Ali river which is located 20km to the north. However, the amount of water from that river is insufficient. Therefore, alternative water sources were investigated and among them, it was identified the Nahr Umr aquifer as the most promising. Nahr Umr is a regional giant aquifer; it is composed of high porous high permeable sandstone at an average depth of 2900m. The analysis of Nahr Umr aquifer water showed that it has a very high salinity (240000 ppm) almost composed of sodium and calcium chlorides, free of Oxygen, no solid particles were observed, no quantities of dissolved H<sub>2</sub>S, and very low occurrence of bacteria owing to the high water salinity and high temperature of the aquifer. On other hand, aquifer water contains a significant amount of dissolved CO<sub>2</sub> (5.5%) which can cause corrosion. Therefore, there is a need to treat that water to decrease CO<sub>2</sub> or use high corrosion-resistant materials in the pipelines and water source wells.</p> Hussein Saeed Almalikee, Hayder Kadhim Almayyahi, Methaq Khazal Al-Jafar Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Integrating CPI and Core Data into Logistic Regression for Lithofacies Modeling <p>The lithofacies classification research is part of an extended multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and simulation study that has been implemented on the upper shale member/Zubair formation of the southern Iraqi X oil field. This study has been conducted through the Integrated Reservoir Management School (IRMS) at the Basrah Oil Company (BOC). Lithofacies classification is a process to determine rock lithology by analyzing core and well- log data set. Traditionally, lithofacies were classified manually or with the use of some graphing approaches. Many artificial intelligence techniques have recently been adopted to categorize lithofacies. In this work, two robust algorithms were applied to modeling the lithofacies through specific well section (formation), these procedures were adopted and their results were compared to determine more accurate lithofacies classification method. Logistic Boost Regression LBR and Multinomial Logistic Regression MLR were utilized to model the resulting lithofacies as a function of CPI dataset in order to anticipate discrete properties distribution in non-cored depth in wells.</p> <p>CPI data, which are available for 49 wells in the upper shale Zubair formation, includes: water saturation, porosity (∅_neutron) and volume of shale (V_sh). However, routine core analyses of permeability, porosity and facies are existent for only one well. For that well, the lithofacies types are sand, silty sand and shale. Two supervised statistical learning techniques, LBR and MLR, has been certified to model the discrete lithofacies distribution as a function of the CPI records. The lithofacies classification was then validated through forming the confusion table and computing the accuracy for each method. LBR was observed to be the optimum approach as it led to more accurate lithofacies classification than MLR in clastic reservoirs. The presented workflow demonstrated reasonable facies distribution that leads to strong relationship between porosity and permeability to estimate the petrophysical properties in non-cored wells.</p> <p>In addition, the posterior lithofacies distribution were plotted to show the probability of spatial distribution and direction of model. These algorithms implemented through R programming a language commonly used in statistical computing by using software packages. Then, these costs for overall data process acquisition could be reduced.</p> Alaa M. Hasan, Ahmed H. Sabe Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Mathematical Model & Feasibility Study for Construction an Invested Refinery of 100,000 (bbl / Day) in AL-Nasiriya Governorate <p>A mathematical Model and feasibility study of construction an invested Refinery with 100,000 (Bbl/day) in AL-Nasiriya governorate was performed. The project is composed of three Units, Atmospheric Column Distillation Unit (CDU), Catalytic Reformer Unit (CRU) and Residue Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit (RFCC) that produce different products. Based on the Platts prices of petroleum products which was provided by State Organization for Marketing of Oil (SOMO) for May of this year and by standard specifications and technical information of Petroleum Research and Development Center (PRDC), Material balance for feed and products as well as optimization process using LINGO software for these three Units were calculated in order to determine influential financial parameters: (NPV), (IRR), (PI) and Payback period of the project. Different calculation scenarios were prepared taking into account discount of crude oil and products prices, inflation indicator of Capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operation expenditure (OPEX) in addition to extending the life of the project and increase in the cost of capital as well. These scenarios are illustrated as followings: -</p> <p>1- The refinery was considered non-feasible in case of the crude feed price is taken (65$) and the products prices still constant. Discounted of oil feed was taken gradually by 10% and the products prices stay constant turns the project to be feasible at (50%) discounted oil price which gives positive financial parameters as can be seen in scenario (1), (2) but no longer feasible when increasing inflation by (3%) and (5%) as shown in scenario (3) and (4).</p> <p>2- The price of crude oil feed was taken constant (65$) and the products prices were gradually increased by (10%) till (50%) with constant other parameters gives negative financial parameters means non feasibility as can be seen in scenario (5).</p> <p>3- Increasing products prices by 10% and discount crude oil price by 10% together makes the project feasible at (25%) for both as shown in scenario (6). Conversely, when inflation was taken into account for OPEX and cost of capital, the project shifted to be feasible at (40%) for both crude oil and products as seen in scenario (7, 8, 9). The crude oil feed price and products was increased gradually by (10%) and decreased by the same percent. Both scenarios give negative financial parameters as shown in (10) and (11).</p> <p>4- Extending life of project from (4) to (6) years and let other parameters constant including CAPEX to study the impact on the financial parameters. It is noticed that the refinery gives negative income compared to previous period of project in scenarios (12), (13). The cost of capital was increased from 2,100 million to 3000 million with no change in the other parameters gives negative income as seen in scenario (14) and (15). On the other hand, cost of capital and life of project were changed together makes the project worse income due to decline in the financial parameters as illustrated in scenario (14) and (16).</p> Omar M. AL-Azzawi, Harith I. Mohammed, Hussam J. Mousa, Assad O. Rabet, Sura K. Hussein Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Protection of Oil Refinery Furnaces Bricks Using Coatings of Nano Zirconia-Glass Composites <p>The process of ceramic or refractory surfaces coating is one of the methods used to protect the ceramic body from chemical effects resulting from operating conditions, especially in the applications that include acid gases emissions such as furnaces of petroleum refining units. A mixture of low-melting glass frit was used, reinforced with nano powders of zirconia and Partial Stabilized Zirconia with yttria (3Y-PSZ) with different additives 5wt% and 10 wt%, as well as the addition of nano-alumina for the same percentage of addition. The medium alumina refractory brick which used in lining petroleum refining units was used as a basis for coating.</p> <p>The coating process was implemented after mixing and preparation of a homogeneous suspension in the presence of water, then drying and sintering until glazing at a temperature of 850 <sup>o</sup>C. X-ray diffraction technique was used to show the structural characterization of the glazing, which indicated that a glass frit layer was transformed into a mixture of ceramic-glass (crystalline glass), where the crystalline structures of the nano powders were clearly visible. Surface roughness showed low values for frit added with 5wt% of (3Y-PSZ) as well as the frit to which was added 10 %wt of (3Y-PSZ with 5wt% alumina). Moreover, all samples showed clear chemical resistance against acids, including concentrated H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>. Thermal shock resistance varied for vitrification mixtures, but it was good for vitrified samples, adding 10%wt of (3Y-PSZ) with 5wt% alumina as well as adding silicate to the mixture, and these mixtures are considered to be the best in medium alumina refractory surfaces coating.</p> S. A. Zaidan, Hafidh Y. Abed, Sattar J. Hussein, Hussam J. Mousa, Basim A. Abbood Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfated Zirconia Catalyst for Light Naphtha Isomerization Process <p>The platinum-loaded zirconium oxide (Pt/SO<sub>4</sub><sup>-2</sup>/ZrO<sub>2</sub>) catalyst was developed for the light naphtha atoms over the reaction temperature range of 160 to 220 °C, 1 and 3 h<sup>-1</sup> LSHV and 10 bar. Platinum improved the stability of the catalyst by preventing the formation of a coke precursor at the strong acid site of sulfur zirconium. The acidity of the catalyst was characterized by of NH<sub>3</sub>-TPD and the effect of sulfur and calcination temperature on the surface area of ​​the final prepared zirconia was studied. The prepared catalyst shows high structural similar activity at temperature between 200 and 210°C for two types of light naphtha feed.</p> Dr. Ban A. Ahmed Al-Tabbakh, Maan M. Dawood Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Solid Fuel Char Production via Pyrolysis Process of Oily Sludge Produced as a Resulted in Storage Tanks at North Refineries Company Baiji <p>The oily sludge contains a toxics material. It has an impact effect to the environment and worker’s health. Therefore, treatment the residue oily sludge in the refineries storage tanks and convert it to useful product, is an important task. Oily sludge (OS) sample was obtained from North Refineries Company (NRC) Baiji which produced about 3000-3500 m<sup>3</sup>/ year. In this study, different range of pyrolysis temperatures have been applied (300, 500, 700, and 900 °C). The parameters have been investigated the efficiency of char produced from OS. The operation conditions of (20 g, 700 °C, and 1.5 h, under N<sub>2 </sub>pressure) are investigated. The calorific value was enhanced from 9.125 to 17.247<sup>-1</sup> with an increased rate ~ 89.0 %.&nbsp; The fuel ratio was increased from 0.78 of OS to 0.97 around 24.35 % increased percentage of char at 700 °C. Finally, the energy recovery was enhanced at maximum value 1.909 % of char at 700 °C. The results show the fuel properties were upgraded to burn with a small amount of CO<sub>2</sub>.</p> Mahmod A. Abdulqader, Omar Abed Habeeb, Mohammed Sarhan Dheab, Shihab Ezzuldin M. Saber, Asaad Owayez Rabet, Gazwan J. Mohammed, A. H. Saleh Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Oil Facilities Surveillance Using an Autonomous Quadrotor <p>This work addresses using the autonomous quadrotor or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for surveillance of oil fields, Facilities and pipelines since that can be very costly and dangerous specially in dangerous zones. This topic is very important because of the money consuming to repair and protect these oil facilities. Quadrotors are very small Vertical take-off landing (VTOL) helicopter, cheap, easy to use and has many other fields of applications. Quadrotor’s dynamic model involves nonlinearity, uncertainties, and coupling which makes the Quadrotor has a very complex system. PID controllers are proposed for controlling the quadrotor altitude through different environments during different missions. To drive the quadrotor to follow the desired trajectory pure pursuit algorithm (PPA) will be use. The simulation results will be pretested using the visual simulator named Gazebo with the aid of ROS to connected with the MATLAB to show the movement of the quadrotor insides different environments.</p> Baqir Nasser Abdul- Samed Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Using Fuzzy Inference System in Gas Turbine to Overcome a High Exhaust Temperature Problem <p>The turbine units are at the forefront of equipment in the process of pumping crude oil and exporting it to the oil ports, where there are many types of turbines used in different sites of Iraqi stations whether pumping oil stations or electrical power production stations. One of the most important types of turbines is the gas turbine, which is frequently used in oil depots. One of the remarkable depots in Iraq is Zubair-1 / Basra that exports around 850,000 barrels per day (B/D). Therefore, Zubair-1 should continue pumping the crude oil 24/7, which has five gas turbines (three Rolls-Royce AVON MK 1533 and two Siemens SGT 400). However, the three Rolls-Royce gas turbines in Zubair-1 have not worked in the summer season since 2016, when the ambient temperature goes high around 11:00 am to 3:30 pm. This paper proposes solution to solve a high exhaust temperature (EGT) shutdown signal (a preventing running turbine signal) without effect on the sequence of turbine running stages. The proposal is adding a fuzzy inference system (FIS) that controls the gas turbine in the first two running stages that demonstrates and controls of speed the turbine from 800 RPM to 3000 RPM. The inputs of FIS are the average temperature of eight combustion chambers (exhaust temperatures) and the speed of the gas turbine, while the output of FIS is the control signal to the flow control valve (FCV) with an amplifier to gain the signal.</p> <p>The FIS proposal has been applied in all three Rolls-Royce jet pumping turbines since April 7, 2021, and they work regularly at all times of the day. The FIS minimizes the maximum average of combustion chambers temperature at midafternoon in June 9, 2021 (48 ˚C ambience temperature) from 689 ˚C to 610 ˚C that means the improvement is around 45%.</p> Seaar Jawad Al-Dabooni , Hussein Abdul Shaheed Al-Shawi Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Membrane Distillation Technology Using for Desalination of Associated Oil Water Production and Study Efficiency of Feed Water Operation Parameter on Air Gap Membrane Distillation Process Production <p>In this study; membrane distillation technology using to associated oil water production desalination by air gap membrane distillation unit to removed salt from the water after separating oil product, via PTEF commercial hydrophobic membrane distillation with 0.22 µm porous and 0.011 m&nbsp;&nbsp; contact surface area, evaluated the desalination system and operation parameter for feed water effected on process production by employment the distillation under boiling point temperature that getting commercial increments and study the energy gain by calculating the GOR of the desalination process.</p> <p>The study focusing on the air gap membrane distillation desalination process by a range of temperature after primary simple sedimentation and filtration it's obtained salt rejection up to 98.9% that proves process separation efficiency. Evaluated the mean operation parameters of feed water affected on permeate water production when selected the feed temperature and flow rate with fixed coolant temperature, coolant flow rate, and air gap width to get an optimum range for feed water operation parameter to obtain optimum value to permeate water production and saving energy.</p> Safaa Abdul Ghany Alfaez Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of the Radon Concentration of Gas 222Rn Emitted From Sludge Samples Located in the Radioactive Waste Collection Warehouse in Khader Al-Maa South of Basra City – Iraq <p>Thirty-one samples of sludge were taken, stored at the natural radioactive waste collection site, NORM, in Khidir Al-Maa, south of Basra city, resulting from the operations of extracting and filtering crude oil in oil fields in Basra Oil Company, to determine gas concentrations Radon <sup>222</sup>Rn and other radioisotopes in Sludge models. The rapid electronic technology was adopted through the RAD7 device, the active method, and the gamma analysis technique using HPGe High Purity Germanium Detectors to determine the specific activity of radioactive elements. The measurements for this study showed 98463±7031 Bq.m<sup>-3</sup> in sample no. S10 a barrel of sludge was brought from the third Degassing Station plant in the northern Rumaila oil field and least concentrated is 8317±594 Bq.m<sup>-3</sup> in sample no. S14 sludge belonging to the sixth Degassing Station / West Qurna-1, the study also revealed the presence of high concentrations of the specific effectiveness of radioactive isotopes (<sup>214</sup>Pb, <sup>212</sup>Bi, <sup>226</sup>Ra) and (<sup>212</sup>Pb, <sup>212</sup>Bi, <sup>228</sup>Ac) of the uranium-238 series and Thorium-232 series in a sludge form selected from a barrel returning to the third gas isolation plant - North Rumaila Oilfield and stockpile at the collection site, where the specific activity value of radium was <sup>226</sup> Ra 133851 Bq.k<sup>-1</sup> of the uranium-238 series and for lead <sup>212</sup>Pb 56432 Bq.k<sup>-1</sup> of For uranium-238 series compared to their concentrations, 32 Bq.k<sup>-1</sup> 45 Bq.k<sup>-1</sup> in a natural soil model. The effective dose to which on-site workers would be exposed in contact was calculated and found to be 196.92 Svh<sup>-1</sup>, a dose that exceeded the proposed 50 Sv. h<sup>-1</sup> dose limits by the US EPA. The probability of developing cancer due to exposure to radon per million people was found and it was found to be a high value compared to the suggested value (170-230) per million people previously by ICRP.</p> Master A. Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Corrosion Control Mechanisms and the Effect of pH on Corrosion in the Crude Oil Refining Process <p>The consequences of corrosion in the crude oil refining process cannot be ignored due to the damage caused by the corrosion of oil equipment, and the serious losses that result from that. Therefore, in this research, methods of controlling the occurrence of corrosion in the crude oil refining unit in the Najaf refinery for four types of crude oil - API (28, 28.2, 29.2, and 30.2) were studied. Chemicals were added in different quantities and types before and during the crude oil refining process to the atmospheric distillation unit, where it was found that these chemicals have the ability to make a media within the limits of pH from 5.5 to 6.5, where the corrosion became little or no. Also, an anti-corrosion chemical was added, which reduced the incidence of corrosion in the overhead systems of crude oil refining equipment. In addition to treating the crude oil using desalter before refining it, where the mud and dirt and a large proportion of the salts in the emulsified water were removed from crude oil. The best results obtained were pH (6, 6, 5.7, and 5.5)&nbsp; and the percentage of iron ions Fe<sup>+2</sup> ( 0.8, 1, 1.5, and 2.1) for four types of refined crude oil at using pump dosages for inhibitor (2.5, 2, 3.5 and 3.5), caustic soda (4, 6, 8, and 8) and neutralizer (2, 2.5, 3, and 3). This practical study showed the importance of adding chemicals in different quantities, as well as electrical and thermal treatment in controlling and preventing corrosion of oil equipment in the crude oil refining unit.</p> Karrar Ayad Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Studying the effect ZnONP Deposited on ST37-2 by Pulse Laser Depositions Technique for Corrosion Protection Using in Oil Storage Applications. <p>In the study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO<strong><sub>NP</sub></strong>) were coated on carbon steel substrates via pulse laser deposition (PLD) process, in order to achieve passive layers of nanocoating. ST37-2 a type of steel is used in the manufacture of tanks that are used in oil applications, which suffers from corrosion, this will lead a large losses. Electrochemical technique (Tafel polarization completion) has been carried out for study the corrosion behavior of this steel coating type. The specimens of steel were examined in aqueous solution containing about 3.5 wt. % NaCl using polarization method, with power of hydrogen (pH) held to value 4.0, in order to evaluated the corrosion rate. ZnO<strong><sub>NP.</sub></strong> Characteristics and topographic nanocoating by PLD technique were evaluated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) tests. Where semi uniform nanoparticles of ZnO<strong><sub>NP</sub></strong> were achieved with a nanoscale approximately ranging from 33-56 nm, While XRD pattern indicated the presence of ZnO<strong><sub>NP</sub></strong> with different crystal structures. In other side the input parameters of (PLD) technique were substrate temperature, number of pulse and fluencies energy have been examined, in order to study their influence on the rate of corrosion reduction. The results indicate that number of shoots pulse has a significant effect the corrosion rate in operation of PLD technique, which is highest among the contributions of the other parameters. Enhancement about 56%&nbsp; &nbsp;is achieved of ST37-2 coated with (ZnO<strong><sub>NP</sub></strong>) deposition, as compared with uncoated steel.</p> Ahmed S. Abbas, Iman Adnan Annon, Firas F. Sayyid Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Optimizing of Turbine blade spar using Ansys program <p>The current work involved optimizing the spars of wind turbine blades while taking into account the wind speed quantities that affected the blade structure. The objective was to determine the optimal dimensions of turbine blade spar configurations using the finite element method under the influence of the maximum pressure associated with the first mode shape while maintaining the Von Misses stresses within the assumed safety factor (1.5). (200-230 MPa). The blade was stiffened with a main box spar and two auxillary spars on each side. Appropriate spar locations were specified for poisons with a high natural frequency &nbsp;first mode. The blade parts' dimensions were discretized to allow for greater flexibility and precision in dimension assignment. By utilizing the ANSYS program, the optimization process required a certain number of iterations to modify the blade structure's dimensions. Optimized iteration was considered in order to increase the thickness in areas of high stress and decrease the thickness in areas of low stress. Additionally, a comparison between a blade structure with optimal dimensions and one with non-optimal dimensions was included.</p> Firas Thair Al-Maliky, Dhurgham A. Kadhim Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Save Energy in Choosing Oil Pumping Systems <p>Some non-specialists raised problems about the turbine pumping system in the Al-Faw oil depot, and it reached the Office of Internal Oversight and some deputies in Parliament, so I decided through the research to clarify the basis on which to rely on appropriate pumping systems to achieve the required operational conditions with the least energy expended And this reflected the choice of pumping systems that were chosen to work in Al -Faw oil depot. Through the research, it was found that the best way to choose oil pump systes and to save the energy used for pumping is to use the variable speed of the pump with the use of the parallel pumping system for multi pumps, which was used in the Faw oil depot.</p> Adnan Yasser Majeed Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Investment guarantees in the crude oil halftone sector in Iraq Analytical legal study <p>The legal guarantees granted by States to investors in the oil sector is one of the most important pillars of attracting these investments in various forms and types، bringing capital and the transfer of technology and technical and technical expertise، which contributes to the economic development of these countries and thus develop the infrastructure of the national economy، A suitable legal system for this type of investment.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Securing the needs of oil derivatives and achieving self-sufficiency in Iraq did not receive enough attention from the oil refining sector. The public sector is still unable to meet all the requirements of the local market for oil derivatives. The Iraqi government has only a few refineries which are not keeping pace with the global development in this field. Which requires encouraging the private sector to invest in field of liquidating crude oil by granting it a number of advantages and guarantees in order to contribute to meet the needs of the local market on the one hand، and export these products to the international market on the other hand.</p> Kadhim Mutashar Shebeeb Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Measuring and analyzing the impact of oil revenues on inflation rates in the Iraqi economy for the period (1990-2015) <p>The oil wealth is one of the main componets in the countries that possess this wealth and Iraq is the largest who has oil wealth after the however the excessive adoption 0f this wealth in financing its economic made it a richelism the effects of oil prices fluctuations vary by countries in the outstanding countries, as countries with the side Monitoring to oil prices and what these fluctuations are of great implications&nbsp; inflation is one of the variable of the macro-economy, which is affected by large fluctuations in the price of oil, which affects the economy clearly, on this basis, the study sought to explan the impact of changes or fluctuation that occur in oil prices on one of the variable of macroeconomic and inflation the study recommendedthe need to diversify the sources of the budget and the lack of reliance on a single resource rent, which is the need to adobt beconomic policies appropropriate to the role of the oil sector in the iraqi economy and reduce inflation through of appropriate economic.</p> Khtam Hatem Al-jbwry, Mohmmed Mohsen, Ibraheem skran Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0300