Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies JPRS is quarterly scientific, issued by Ministry of Oil / Petroleum Research and Development Center (PRDC)/ Baghdad/ Iraq, which holds the international numbering (Print ISSN-2220-5381), (Online ISSN : 2710-1096) and has certificate (accreditation) from the Ministry of Higher Education and scientific research under the supervision of a group of professors and oil experts, as well as two professors who affiliated to University PLYMOUTH, (UK) and another from University of Colorado School of Mines, (USA), the first issued was in 2010 \August.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal has excellent scientific level since first issued, evaluation techniques for researches and studies which followed aimed towards developed scientific and technical level. PRDC seeks to produce the journal in the best way because of the importance it represents in disseminating the scientific achievements in the oil sector as well as the research of students in the Ministry of higher Education and scientific research.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Concerned with publishing researches and studies related to the oil industry in the fields of:</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Petroleum Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Geology</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemistry</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Chemical Engineering</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Environment</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Oil Economy</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">- Renewable Energy. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The journal's website provides Open access and free in charge (download, publication) for authors, readers and institutions.</span></p> en-US (shatha fadhil) (shatha fadhil) Sun, 19 Sep 2021 12:09:05 +0300 OJS 60 Biodiesel Production using Synthesized HY Zeolite Catalyst <p>Biodiesel was produced using oleic acid esterification and transesterification of the sunflower oil methods. Many different factors affecting production procedures were studied such as reaction temperature, the molar ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction time and concentration of HY catalyst.</p> <p>Different techniques such as TGA, FTIR and Mass spectroscopy were used to syntheses biodiesel. Results showed that 78% of oleic acid maximum conversion was obtained at a temperature of 70<sup>o</sup>C with molar ratio 12:1 ethanol: oil with 5 wt.% catalysts at 90 min reaction time, while for sunflower oil conversion of 98% at 200oC with 5 weight ratio of ethanol: oil at a time of 3 h was successfully obtained.</p> Dr. Ban A. Al-Tabbakh, Sattar J. Hussein, Zena A. Hadi Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for pH adjustment in water treatment <p>The aim of this paper is to explain the advantages of using sulfuric acid in Qarmat Ali water treatment plant belong to Basrah Oil Company, which produces water for injection into the Rumaila reservoirs. Sulfuric acid is a strong acid providing rapid and effective pH reduction. Maintaining the coagulation pH within the optimum value (6.4) by inject specific value of sulfuric acid to RAW water enhances the clarification performances by reducing the clarified water turbidity to minimum value (5.1). It was preferable for &nbsp;operating at a pH below the saturation pH to prevent the precipitation of minerals such as calcium carbonate which are contributing to blocking the surface filters installed downstream (auto back wash filters) and The clarifiers that cause increased the feed from 500 MBD&nbsp; to 1000 MBD. With a fast and rapid dissociation in Water, Sulfuric acid is an effective and practical way to lower the pH on Qarmat Ali plant which producing in excess of 1,000MBD of export water.</p> Ali Salim Abd Al-Hussein Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Using of surface back pressure with water based mud in managed pressure drilling technique to solve lost circulation problem in Southern Iraqi Oil Fields <p>Many drilling problems are encountered continuously while drilling oil wells in the southern Iraqi oil fields. Many of these problems are ineffectively handled resulting in a longer non-productive time. This study aims to identify the formations such as Dammam, and Hartha formations،diagnose potential problems and provide the solution for lost circulation problem. After conducting a comprehensive study on the subject and based on available data, previous studies and some information, the managed pressure drilling (MPD) method was the best technique to solve this problem. This process may use various techniques including control of back pressures .Thus, reducing the risk and control the costs of drilled wells, which have narrow pressure window by managing the wellbore pressure profile.&nbsp; The well plan software program provided by Halliburton Company was used, this software is based on a database and data structure common to many of Landmark’s drilling applications. Mud used with&nbsp; various injection rates&nbsp; to choose the rate that provides the conditions to achieve the best drilling process, as it using mud weights of (8.8 -8.7 ) ppg&nbsp; and applied a surface back pressure (50 psi). Depending on specifications of second hole the optimal injection rate was chosen using the (hydraulics) program. As a results, rate of water injection (850) gpm, is the best&nbsp; which it&nbsp; provides a good efficient cutting transport ratio (CTR), which means high&nbsp; stability and preventing formation damage in addition to controlling in&nbsp; mud losses</p> Batool Abdullah Dhayea, Faleh. H. M. Almahdawi, Sinan I. M. Al-Shaibani Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Identification of Drilling Efficiency Using Log-Derived Cation Exchange Capacity in Shale Formation <p>Shale and shaly formations constitute about 70% to 80% of the total rock formations drilled worldwide, and the most of footage drilled in gas and oil wells is in shale and shaly rocks. Drilling in shale sections in many cases causes wellbore instability and slow drilling problems. In this study, cation exchange capacity of shale is estimated using a relatively simple petrophysical model. The validation of this model is achieved with experimental values of cation exchange capacity. The estimation of cation exchange capacity by this model and common logs data has exhibited potentiality for distinguishing effective/ineffective drilling in shale formations. Drilling and petrophysical data gathered at controlled condition is required in order to optimize the proposed technique. Have knowledge of properties and location of shales permits for remedial actions in future offset well or while drilling in case of logging while drilling (LWD) is used</p> Ahmed Habeeb Alshamy, Faleh H. M. Almahdawi Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Enhancing the Rheological Properties of Water-Based Drilling Fluid by Utilizing of Environmentally-Friendly Materials <p>Recently, many materials have shown that they can be used as alternatives to chemicals materials in order to be used to improve the properties of drilling fluids. Some of these materials are banana peels and corn cobs which both are considered environmentally- friendly materials. The results of the X-ray diffraction examination have proved that the main components of these materials are cellulose and hemicellulose, which contribute greatly to the increasing of the effectiveness of these two materials. Due to their distinct composition, these two materials have improved the rheological properties (plastic viscosity and yield point) and reduced the filtration of the drilling fluids to a large extent. The addition rates used for each of the two materials (banana peels and corn cob) are 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 6%. As regard to banana peels, the results have shown that there is a direct correlation between the addition ratios, the increase in the rheological properties (plastic viscosity and yield point), and the decrease in filtration The corn cob has shown the same results. Also, 0.01% increase in the pH value was observed when adding a corn cob, while adding banana peels showed the opposite, as adding them led to 0.02% decrease in the pH value. Among the other properties that have been studied is density, as it has been noticed that there is no significant effect of these two materials on the density of drilling fluid. Moreover, the performance of these two materials has been compared with the PAC polymer. This research suggests that the possibility of moving towards corn cob and dried banana peels as additives for biodegradable drilling fluid. Apart from being environmentally friendly, the choice of using them is considered economically more efficient than other chemical additives. By all accounts, the above materials are an increasingly rational choice for moving forward for an environmentally friendly oil industry.</p> Amel Habeeb Assi, Ahmed Abdallah Haiawi Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Measurements and Conventional Logs to Predict Permeability for a Complex Carbonate Formation <p>Permeability is one of the most important property for reservoir characterization, and its prediction has been one of the fundamental challenges specially for a complex formation such as carbonate, due to this complexity, log analysis cannot be accurate enough if it’s not supported by core data, which is critically important for formation evaluation. In this paper, permeability is estimated by making both core and log analysis for five exploration wells of Yammama formation, Nasiriyah oil field. The available well logging recorders were interpreted using Interactive Petrophysics software (IP) which used to determine lithology, and the petrophysical properties. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Measurements is used for laboratory tests, which provide an accurate, porosity and permeability measurements. The results show that the main lithology in the reservoir is limestone, in which average permeability of the potential reservoir units’ values tend to range from 0.064275 in zone YA to 20.74 in zone YB3, and averaged porosity values tend to range from 0.059 in zone YA to 0.155 in zoneYB3. Zone YB3 is found to be the best zone in the Yammama formation according to its good petrophysical properties. The correlation of core-log for permeability and porosity produce an acceptable R^2 equal to 0.618, 0.585 respectively</p> Raniah S. Alkhayyat, Fadhil S. Kadhim, Yousif khalaf Yousif Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Use of FMEA to Assess Environmental Risks A Case Study at Middle Refineries Company / Dora Refinery <p>The Environmental Management System (EMS) is considered one of the modern and important administrative systems nowadays as an introduction to treating or reducing environmental risks and their effects, and&nbsp; to increase production and maximize profits without regard to the future environmental impacts on society as a result of the depletion and access of Natural resources and increase the volume of pollution and toxic emissions, which in turn will be reflected on the nature and quality of life for the current and next generation.</p> <p>The problem of the study manifests itself in diagnosing, assessing and reducing the risks of environmental aspects and the resulting environmental impacts that have a clear impact on the lives of workers and the general environment.</p> <p>In this work, the extent of application of the environmental management system in (Midland Refineries Company / Al-Dora Refinery) and diagnosing environmental aspects and evaluating them according to the FMEA tool.</p> <p>This study reached a set of results from The use of the FMEA tool related to the assessment of the risk priority Number (RPN1) for all environmental aspects generated in the form of light Oil Board , as the total of environmental aspects (228) divided into [significant risk (39), medium risk (126), slight risk (63)] After applying the recommended procedures and taking remedial actions, the results of the risk priority level (RPN2) were divided into [significant risk (0), medium risk (83), slight risk (145)].</p> <p>The added value in this study is clear in how this tool is used to assess environmental risks and convert the diagnostic environmental aspects in the oil sector into digital values that are easier to deal with in a more realistic manner in terms of severity, occurrence and detection, whose outcome is to know the degree of priority of the risk and develop the necessary procedures to address it in The researched company.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ibraheem Mohamed Zaidan, dr. sameer kamil Al-khateeb Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Legal provisions of the Oil Products Distribution Company <p>The international oil companies have a good budget of increasing profitability as a result of the positive change in the world oil prices, which has reflected positively on the profitability and productivity of international oil companies, and the most prominent domestic companies that were positively affected by global variables is the oil products distribution company products as a one of the public companies that are administratively associated with the Ministry of Oil. In legal terms, however, it is subject to several laws, most notably the Law for the Establishment of Oil Products Distribution Company No. (1) of 1999, the Law of Organization of the Ministry of Oil No. 101 of 1976, Public companies No. (22) for the year 1997 can be determined these laws and legal provisions concerning the establishment, management and how the distribution of profits and losses in which the mechanism of oversight procedures, the end of the cases it expires, filtered, and we will discuss in this paper the most important legal provisions relating to the distribution of petroleum products company.</p> mohamed jasim mohamed Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Iraq Crude Oil Exports – July, August, September/ 2019 <p>Table 1. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – July 2019<br>Table 2. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – August 2019<br>Table 3. Iraq Crude Oil Exports – September 2019</p> Ministry of oil - oil marketing company SOMO Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0300