Surge Pressure Effect on Crude Oil Export Pipelines to Petroleum Ports
Pressure surges in pipelines are created by a change in momentum of the moving stream (e.g. valve closure). The occurrence of pressure surges should be determined by transient pressure analysis .Surge pressures are particularly critical for pipelines transporting liquid fluids, because of the high density and lower compressibility compared to gaseous fluids. Although damping of the pressure wave initiated at the point of blockage occurs as it travels upstream, surge may in some cases result in the highest pipeline pressure at a location well upstream of the point of origin. This may occur in particular for liquid pipelines in hilly terrain.
Methods of preventing the generation of unacceptably high surge pressures including valve closure speed reduction or special fast-response pressure relief systems close to the point of surge initiation. If not sufficient, strict adherence to well formulated operating procedures should be implemented.
In our research we presented the factors that may contribute in the happening of surge phenomenon and with the use of computer calculations and experimental work we gave some solutions to prevent it. Depending on Joukowsky equation we noticed that for crude oil that each time when decreasing the valve opening the pressure will increase .in experimental part we also made tests on gas oil by using a system in petroleum research and development center the results showed that as the valve closed the pressure increase where we get maximum pressure of 42 psi.
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