The Effecting of Various Parameters on the Thermophysical and Rheological Properties of SiO2 Nano-lubricating Oil in Petroleum Refineries


  • Alyaa M. Awad university of technology
  • khalid A. Sukkar University of Technology
  • Dalya M. Jaed Ministry of Oil / Petroleum Research and Development Center



Base (stock-60) oil, Thermal conductivity, Flashpoint, Pour point, Dynamic viscosity


The improvement of the performance of automotive engines necessitated the use of effective lubricating oil. Experimentally explored are the thermophysical characteristics and rheological behavior of Nano-lubricating oil made by mixing SiO2 nanoparticles with stock-60. Nano-lubricant has been prepared with a two-step method using a magnetic stirrer as a first step mixing and an ultrasonic homogenizer. The rheological properties were investigated at various shear rates, temperature, and solid volume percent. This research was carried out on concentrations ranging from 0.1 % to 1.0 %. The results showed elevation in temperature, the dynamic viscosity dropped in all shear rates due to lower SiO2 NP concentrations and that all samples exhibited Newtonian behavior at all temperatures fixed. The thermal conductivity of nano-lubricating oil was tested at various temperatures ranging from 20°C to 50°C. The different solid volume percent of SiO2 NPs were in the range of 0 to 1% maximum enhancement value was achieved at higher temperature with increased volume percent of SiO2 NPs. Other important thermophysical properties of lube oil including flashpoint and pour point were also measured. The results revealed that adding SiO2 NPs to stock-60 at a solid volume percent of 1% will result in a maximum improvement of 12 % in flashpoint over the base oil, while the improvement of pour point was achieved at nano-addition of 0.75% and 1% compared with the base oil was increased from -3°C to -6°C.


Hatami, Mohammad, Maryam Hasanpour, and Dengwei Jing, "Recent developments of nanoparticles additives to the consumables liquids in internal combustion engines: Part II: Nano-lubricants.", Journal of Molecular Liquids, 114156, 2020.

Khalid A. Sukkar, Abullhassan A. Karamalluh, and Thulfiqar N. Jaber, "Rheological and thermal properties of lubricating oil enhanced by the effect of CuO and TiO2 nano-additives.", Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, 15, no. 2, pp. 24-33, 2019.

Akhavan-Behabadi, M. A., F. Hekmatipour, S. M. Mirhabibi, and B. Sajadi, "Experimental investigation of thermal–rheological properties and heat transfer behavior of the heat transfer oil–copper oxide (HTO–CuO) nanofluid in smooth tubes.", Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 68, pp. 681-688, 2015.

Jaber, Thulfiqar N., Khalid A. Sukkar, and Abullhassan A. Karamalluh. "Specifications of Heavy Diesel Lubricating Oil Improved by MWCNTs and CuO as Nano-additives." In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 579, no. 1, p. 012014. IOP Publishing, 2019.

Baskar, S., G. Prabaharan, S. Arumugam, and N. Nagabhooshanam, "Modeling and Analysis of the Tribological Evaluation of Bearing Materials under the Influence of Nano Based Marine Lubricant Using D-optimal Design", Materials Today: Proceedings vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 11548-11555, 2018.

Sadegh Aberoumand, Amin Jafarimoghaddam, “Experimental study on synthesis, stability, thermal conductivity and viscosity of Cu–engine oil nanofluid”, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, Vol. 71, pp. 315-322, 2017.

Mohamed Alaa, Mohamed Hamdy, Mohamed Bayoumi, and Tarek Osman, "Experimental investigations of Rheological behavior and thermal conductivity of nano grease”, Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, 2017.

Aghahadi, Mohammad Hasan, Mohammadreza Niknejadi, and Davood Toghraie, "An experimental study on the rheological behavior of hybrid Tungsten oxide (WO3)-MWCNTs/engine oil Newtonian nanofluids", Journal of Molecular Structure, vol. 1197, pp. 497-507, 2019.

Nadooshan, Afshin Ahmadi, Hamed Eshgarf, and Masoud Afrand, "Evaluating the effects of different parameters on the rheological behavior of nanofluids: a comprehensive review", Powder Technology, vol. 338, pp.342-353, 2018.

Kharabati, Sajjad, Seyfolah Saedodin, and Seyed Hadi Rostamian, "Experimental investigation of thermal and rheological behavior of silica/soybean oil nano lubricant in low-temperature performance of internal combustion engine", Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects pp. 1-15, 2021.

Kashefi, Mohammad Hossein, Seyfolah Saedodin, and Seyed Hadi Rostamian, "Effect of silica nano-additive on flash point, pour point, rheological and tribological properties of lubricating engine oil: an experimental study", Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry vol. 147, pp. 4073–4086, 2022.

Mousavi, Seyed Borhan, Saeed Zeinali Heris, and Mir Ghasem Hosseini, "Experimental investigation of MoS2/diesel oil nanofluid thermophysical and rheological properties." International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 108, 104298, November 2019.

Shafi, Wani Khalid, and M. S. Charoo, "Rheological properties of hazelnut oil mixed with zirconium-dioxide nanoparticles", Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 26, pp. 745-749, 2020. DOI:10.1016/j.matpr.2020.01.019

Hu, Xichen, Deshun Yin, Jingpeng Xie, Xuan Chen, and Chunyu Bai, "Experimental study of viscosity characteristics of graphite/engine oil (5 W-40) nanofluids", Applied Nanoscience, vol. 10(21–22), pp. 1-14, 2020.

Esfe, Mohammad Hemmat, Seyfolah Saedodin, and Davood Toghraie, "Experimental study and modeling the SiO2-MWCNT (30: 70)/SAE40 hybrid nano-lubricant flow based on the response surface method to identify the optimal lubrication conditions", International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 130, 105771, 2022.

del Río, José M. Liñeira, María JG Guimarey, Jose I. Prado, Luis Lugo, Enriqueta R. López, and María JP Comuñas, "Improving the tribological performance of a biodegradable lubricant adding graphene nanoplatelets as additives", Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 345, 117797, 2022.

Zeinali Heris, Saeed, Mohammad Amin Razbani, P. Estellé, and O. Mahian, "Rheological behavior of zinc-oxide nano-lubricants", Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1073-1079, 2015.

Esfe, Mohammad Hemmat, Masoud Afrand, Samira Gharehkhani, Hadi Rostamian, Davood Toghraie, and Mahidzal Dahari, "An experimental study on the viscosity of alumina-engine oil: effects of temperature and nanoparticles concentration", International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 76, pp. 202-208, 2016.

Hernandez, C., and A. C. Pierre, "Influence of the sol-gel acidic synthesis conditions on the porous texture and acidity of SiO2− Al2O3 catalysts with a low Al proportion", Langmuir vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 530-536, 2000.

Moncada, Edwin, R. Quijada, and Jaime Retuert, "Nanoparticles prepared by the sol-gel method and their use in the formation of nanocomposites with polypropylene", Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 33, 335606, 2007.

El Rassy, H., and A. C. Pierre, "NMR and IR spectroscopy of silica aerogels with different hydrophobic characteristics", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids vol. 351, no. 19-20, pp. 1603-1610, 2005.

Ranjbarzadeh, Ramin, and Raoudha Chaabane, "Experimental Study of Thermal Properties and Dynamic Viscosity of Graphene Oxide/Oil Nano-Lubricant", Energies, vol. 14, no. 10, 2886, 2021.

Kashefi, M.H., Saedodin, S. & Rostamian, S.H. Effect of silica nano-additive on flash point, pour point, rheological and tribological properties of lubricating engine oil: an experimental study. J Therm Anal Calorim 147, 4073–4086 (2022).

Seyed Borhan Mousavi, Saeed Zeinali Heris, Mir Ghasem Hosseini, “Experimental investigation of MoS2/diesel oil nanofluid thermophysical and rheological properties”, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 108, 2019, 104298,

Motahari, Kazem, Mohammad Abdollahi Moghaddam, and Mojtaba Moradian, "Experimental investigation and development of new correlation for influences of temperature and concentration on dynamic viscosity of MWCNT-SiO2 (20-80)/20W50 hybrid nano-lubricant", Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 152-158, 2018.

Mohamed Kamal Ahmed Ali, Hou Xianjun, "Improving the heat transfer capability and thermal stability of vehicle engine oils using Al2O3/TiO2 nanomaterials", Powder Technology, vol. 363, pp. 48-58, March 2020.

Farid Soltani, Davood Toghraie, and Arash Karimipour, "Experimental measurements of thermal conductivity of engine oil-based hybrid and mono nanofluids with tungsten oxide (WO3) and MWCNTs inclusions", Powder Technology, vol. 371, pp. 37-44, 2020.

Mohamed Kamal Ahmed Ali, Hou Xianjun, Richard Fiifi Turkson, Zhan Peng and Xiandong Chen,"Enhancing the thermophysical properties and tribological behavior of engine oils using nano-lubricant additives", RSC advances, vol. 6, no. 81, pp. 77913-77924, 2016.

Mukherjee, Sayantan, Smita Rani Panda, Purna Chandra Mishra, and Paritosh Chaudhuri, "Enhancing Thermophysical Characteristics and Heat Transfer Potential of TiO2/Water Nanofluid", International Journal of Thermophysics 41, no. 12, pp. 1-33, 2020.

Das, Pritam Kumar, "A review based on the effect and mechanism of thermal conductivity of normal nanofluids and hybrid nanofluids", Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 240, pp. 420-446, 2017.

Tian, Xiao-Xiao, Rasool Kalbasi, Cong Qi, Arash Karimipour, and Hong-Li Huang, "Efficacy of hybrid nano-powder presence on the thermal conductivity of the engine oil: an experimental study", Powder Technology, vol. 369, pp. 261-269, 2020.

Tonk, Ravinder. "The science and technology of using nano-materials in engine oil as lubricant additives." Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 37, Part 2, pp. 3475-3479, 2021.

Tianyi Sui, Mei Ding, Chunhui Ji, Shuai Yan, Jinhua Wei, Anying Wang, Feifei Zhao and Jixiong Fei, "Dispersibility and rheological behavior of functionalized silica nanoparticles as lubricant additives", Ceramics International, vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 18438-18443, 2018.

Bahaa M. Kamel, Emad El-Kashif, W. Hoziefa, Mohamed S. Shiba & Abou Bakr Elshalakany, "The effect of MWCNTs/GNs hybrid addition on the tribological and rheological properties of lubricating engine oil", Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, Volume 42, Issue 12, pp. 1811-1819, 2021.

Kotia, Ankit, and Subrata Kumar Ghosh, "Experimental analysis for rheological properties of aluminum oxide (Al2O3)/gear oil (SAE EP-90) nano lubricant used in HEMM”, Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 600-605, 2015.

J. Patel and A. Kiani, “Tribological Capabilities of Graphene and Titanium Dioxide Nano Additives in Solid and Liquid Base Lubricants,” Applied Sciences, vol. 9, no. 8, p. 1629, Apr. 2019,




How to Cite

Awad, A. M.; Sukkar, khalid A.; Jaed, D. M. The Effecting of Various Parameters on the Thermophysical and Rheological Properties of SiO2 Nano-Lubricating Oil in Petroleum Refineries. Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies 2022, 12, 68-91.